What month closes year, and begins winter?
Guess a riddle: what month begins winter, and year closes? Everyone without effort will answer: December! Stuzhaylo, namely our ancestors so called this month, is the last month of year and first winter month.
But so was not always. As a letoistecheniye at us vedlos according to the Roman calendars (in the beginning on Julian, and then on Gregorian), we will address history so of Ancient Rome loved by me.
On - Latin December will be of December . And this word, in turn, went from the Latin word decem - ten. Any Roman who was living till 46th year B.C. and did not find Julius Caesar`s reform could not guess a riddle at the beginning of article, as well as we cannot understand yet why the twelfth month went from the word ten.
Julius Caesar made amendments to a calendar, and only to a new, Julian calendar, December rose on the place, habitual for us: in the end of the year. More precisely, December - that remained on the place, here only new year was celebrated not on March 1, and on January 1 - it coincided from the beginning of the Roman business year and with taking office of new consuls.
On - Ukrainian December - gruden ; strange, but this ancient Slavic name of month of November! Passing to the Roman calendars, the countries, anyway, borrowed names of months from there, from Rome, just modifying Latin words after the own fashion. For this reason names of months in many languages are similar: December (russk.), of December (ang.), of Dezember (German), of d é cembre (fr.), of dicembre (it.), of diciembre (isp.) etc.
In Russia spoke: “ Platon da Roman show winter to us “. On a national sign what will be on December 1 such and the whole winter will be. There will be a blizzard - all winter the blizzard will be, and prick heat for December 1 - and all three months heat will be. It is curious what drops out the first of December for the same day of week, as the first of September.
On December 4 Orthodox Christians celebrate a holiday of Introduction of Blessed Virgin Mary to the temple. This day the Winter in a snow fur coat passes in the chariot and draws the breath patterns at windows.
And on December 9 . In old times it was day of transition of peasants from one landowner to another; many peasants waited for this day to seize the opportunity to leave the bad barin. The holiday so is called in honor of the Saint Georges the Victorious, in the people named by Yury or Egory. But in 1649 to peasants it was refused this right by Boris Godunov`s decree. From there is a saying: “ Here to you, grandmother, and St. George`s day! “
On December 12 - Paramon Zimoukazatel. Was considered that if this day there is a blizzard, so it will last all week.
In general in Russia loved winter fierce, real. Was considered that if the winter is cold, snow, with strong winds, then there will be a harvest. Here, for example, on December 19 , day of Nikola Zimnego. Our ancestors trusted: how many Nikola Zimny will give to snow, so many Nikola Veshny will bring herbs.
Days in the Northern hemisphere in December the shortest, and in Youzhny - the longest. As in December Earth is turned by the South Pole to the Sun, there is a polar day, and on Northern, naturally, polar night. The shortest day when the sun rises by the smallest height over the horizon - 21 or 22 of December (for the Northern hemisphere). It is day of a winter solstice and the beginning of astronomical winter when the sun passes from a sign of the Sagittarius as a sign of the Capricorn.
Days of solstices and equinoxes at ancient Slavs were considered as one of the most important. Due to these days also holidays were celebrated: The Christmas carol, Velikden, Bathed and of Tausen . On December 25 Slavs noted the Christmas carol, ryadyas in skins of animals and presenting each other with gifts. Christmas and the Christmas-tide - descendants of this holiday (litovsk. Kal ė dos - Christmas).
For many the most favourite day in December - the last. On December 31 we meet New Year and we see off Old. We give each other gifts, we congratulate all around and we radiate happiness because all are happy around and at all there are no sad and sad faces. In a presentiment something new, we promise ourselves will change, to become better, we sum up the results of old year and we make plans for new.
I do not doubt that December will bring all only positive emotions, all important issues will be resolved and made, and this New Year will bring exclusively good and kind in our life!