What satirist wrote fairy tales “ for the sake of the general improvement of the human race “?
are difficult to find the educated person who would not be familiar with the ingenious work “ Gulliver`s Travel “ become during lifetime of the author the world best-seller. However, the majority read it in the simplified version intended for children. His author, Johnathan Swift, was extraordinary popular in England and Ireland. Perhaps, in the second half of the twentieth years of the 18th century of its book were one of the most published. It now it is perceived as the storyteller, and it became famous as the bright satirist - the pamphleteer, ruthlessly, but it is elegant also with a subtle humour deriding defects modern to it societies.
Johnathan was born on November 30, 1667 in the Irish Dublin after death of the father, the petty judicial official. His mother who on hands had also oldest daughter frankly lived in misery, and the boy of visors on education the uncle Godwin Swift. It could give to the nephew fine education and brought him “ in people “. But soon in Ireland civil war and Johnathan who received the bachelor`s degree at the Dublin university began, moved to England.
In England Swift arrived the secretary to the distant relative William Templ living in the County of Surrey. In due time Templ was the prominent diplomat and the statesman famous for the writer - the essayist, now he on rest was engaged in writing of memoirs. Having avoided affairs, Templ did not lose a consequence what the numerous high-ranking guests visiting him testified to. At Swift several times the king Wilhelm came to Templ even. Exactly here Johnathan could join the world of the people managing policy in England for the first time. Its many supervision over the English aristocrats will pour out caustic satire on pages of works of Swift subsequently.
In 1690 Swift returned to Ireland, but till 1699 when Templ died, Johnathan repeatedly came back to the patron who always gave it help and support. Swift and scientific occupations did not leave. In 1692 he in Oxford received the master`s degree, and in 1702 became the doctor of theology (divinity). By this time he had 8 years a curacy of Anglican church, not for long headed arrivals in the small Irish settlements of Kilra and Larakor, was an attendant of a cathedral of Saint Patrick in Dublin, and since 1713 became in this cathedral the dean.
Interest in theology did not cover for it literary activity. Swift began as the poet, then tried the feather in political lampoons. In 1704 he publishes the first book which included satirical stories “ A Tale of a Tub “ and “ Fight of books “. Swift supplied the edition with a subtitle: “ It is written for the sake of the general improvement of the human race “. These words can be carried rightfully and to all his further creativity. Surprisingly, but in a year the book sustained three editions, for Europe of that time an event the most rare especially as it was devoted to ridiculing of religious contradictions, however, in an allegorical form.
From now on its works began to come out often, but they will not interest the reader of our time as it were the political lampoons, the essay and letters devoted to political struggle in England and Ireland. Long time Swift was a supporter of party of Whigs, but to party contradictions treated with a certain irony, once he even compared disagreements of Whigs and the Tory to spring cat`s concerts.
Swift gained special popularity and even love of the simple people when joined in fight for an autonomy of Ireland. If to trust contemporaries, then his portraits even exposed on streets of Dublin. The special savor to it was added by the fact that Swift was the dean of an Anglican cathedral, and actually headed the national movement of the Irish Catholics. Swift managed it is possible to unite people of different religions, unfortunately, in modern Ireland it not always.
Swift got to work on the ledger in the early twenties. In 1726 - 27 years there were 4 volumes “ Gulliver`s Travel “ which at once won improbable popularity. Numerous reprintings and the translations into foreign languages followed. What so were interested readers in the book which we perceive as a peculiar fairy tale today?
The fact that today is read how the children`s book about unusual Gulliver`s Travels, according to the author that also his contemporaries well understood, was sharp satire on a political situation and public prejudices of England of that time. You remember, at first Gulliver gets to the country of dwarfs to Liliputy? He with surprise watches the court intrigues, political conflicts, petty squabbles, envy and gossips prospering in Liliputiya. All this seems to it amusing and frivolous, as well as the tiny state in comparison with solid England. Then travel to the country of giants where Gulliver`s stories about the English society cause laughter as something small and insignificant follows. Now laugh at Gulliver as before he over Liliputians.
The third travel of Gulliver when he gets on the flying island Laputa and the earth Struldbrugov is very curious. There are people which learned secret of immortality, reached the highest degrees of learning, but use the knowledge oddly. They repeatedly rewrite own history, acting by the principle “ and that would be if … “. It before surprise reminds actions of some modern historians and politicians.
Gulliver makes the last trip to the country where reasonable horses govern society. And here the strange beings to a yekh having a human appearance, but almost animal essence serve horses. These beings got used to be guided by instincts and passions, but not reason. Unfortunately, and this image created by the talented satirist was actual for our days.
It should be noted that Swift`s popularity as writer - the satirist and the politician was extraordinary high not only in Ireland where he was entitled the honourable citizen of Dublin, but also in England. Its books were published by big circulations, twice during lifetime of Swift there were collected works. Considerable interest was caused not only by its sharp lampoons, but also verses. By the way, it has also very lyrical work “ A Journal to Stella “.
The last years of life Johnathan Swift had a serious illness, he had a stroke and practically lost the speech. Swift on October 19, 1745 mourned by citizens of Dublin who called the street in his honor died and established two of its busts. His name remained even in space, in honor of Swift craters on the Moon and the satellite of Mars are called. By the way, he foresaw presence at Mars of two satellites long before their opening.
But main monument to Johnathan Swift of " steel; Gulliver`s Travel “ long ago entered into gold fund of the world literature.