What American writer is buried at the Kremlin wall?
This person lived short, but very bright, rich life. Been born on October 22, 1887, in the American city of Portland on the bank of the Pacific Ocean, he died in Moscow on October 19, 1920 of a typhus, without having lived three days up to the thirty-third anniversary. He with big honors was buried at the Kremlin wall where at that time buried the most devoted to revolution of heroes. The one who was at excursion in Lenin`s Mausoleum and in the Necropolis at the Kremlin walls, will remember that on a granite gravestone of this American words are cut: “ John Read, delegate of the III International, 1920 “.
the Street on which we live in St. Petersburg bears a name of John Read.
Still John Read Street is in the city of Serpukhov situated near Moscow and in Astrakhan. But not everyone knows who such John Silas Read (John Silas Reed), than deserved it such honor? I somehow asked several neighbors in the house whether they know something about this person. People of middle age confuse it with known in 60 - e - 70 - e years the singer Dean Reed, many do not know neither about that, nor about another at all.
People of the senior generation will remember that they at history lessons in the senior classes of the teacher briefly told about John Read and recommended to read his book about the Great October Socialist revolution “ 10 days which shook the world “. But in the fifties the last century (as well as during earlier periods) this book was hard to be found in libraries, it in the USSR was not popularized, published small circulations, in the reduced option. As consider many, one of the reasons of it is in the book there is no word about Stalin, but the name of Trotsky is mentioned in each chapter. For the first time I read John Read`s book, studying at university and that in the reduced option. And now found its full text in the Internet and just on one breath read. It is possible to call it the best book about October revolution.
About short, but bright life of John Silas Read many articles and even the book are written to the " series; Life of remarkable people “ so persons interested can always read them. In brief, the biography its is as follows: was born in a family of the large official, studied at the best schools, and graduated at the most prestigious American Harvard university where children only of the richest and exclusive sectors of society were trained. And among students - offsprings of rich men, the Socialist club organized! After the termination of University began to work as the journalist. The rebel at heart, John Read always was where there were strikes, working disorders, in the thick of class fight of the proletariat. He wrote bright reportings on strike of textile workers in the city of Paterson, then about revolt of miners in Rockefeller`s mines in the State of Colorado where the authorities used a rough handling over the risen and their families.
At the end of 1913 John Read crosses the border of the USA, going to storming Mexico where the army of landless peasants under legendary Pancho Vilyi`s command was stirred to action. The book " became a trip result, besides numerous articles for newspapers and magazines; The Risen Mexico “. Read writes about poor Mexican peasants from whom priests of decade in a row continued to levy the tax long ago cancelled by the law about fights to which it happened to it to get together with Pancho Vilyi`s army. And of course, about the most national leader who, only by forty years having learned to read and write, in the cities occupied by him opened numerous schools.
World War I of 1914 - 1918, and John Read began everywhere where guns roar. He tries to see world war from two parties - at first eyes of troops “ Entente “ and then, having got over on other side of a front line, from the German entrenchments. He visited Italy, France, England, Germany, Greece, Serbia and even the Russian Empire where it arrived in 1915, and soon underwent arrest for courageous revelations of the imperial government. In 1916 it comes back to the USA, edits the revolutionary magazine “ Masses “. And summer of 1917 Read hurries to Russia which overthrew autocracy where in the first revolutionary skirmishes distinguished approach of great class war again. The Russian revolution captured him undividedly! The passport of the American journalist opened for him doors on both sides of battling. On October 25, 1917 (in the book he uses dates on new style and calls revolution November) Read at first gets into the Winter Palace occupied by cadets. The group of Americans freely goes on halls of the palace, remembering the smallest details: the floor covered with stubs, the broken-off pictures. And at the end of the day it already again here as a part of the Red Guards going for storm Winter.
It was ubiquitous: on numerous meetings, at meetings of various committees, congresses, in Smolny and in Taurian palaces, went to soldiers near Petrograd, met Lenin, Trotsky, Kamenev, with right and left... In the forward to the book John Read writes: “ This book - a clot of history, history in that look in what I observed it. It does not apply for being more than a detailed report about November revolution when Bolsheviks at the head of workers and soldiers seized the government in Russia and transferred her to hands of Councils “. And further still: “ In this book, the first of a number of books on which I work I should be limited to record of those events which I saw and endured personally or which are confirmed with authentic certificates; two chapters briefly depicting a situation and the reasons of November revolution " are premised to it;.
It collected material everywhere, passing about places into place - complete sets “ Truths “ “ News “ all leaflets, brochures, posters and posters. He had special passion for posters. Every time when the new poster appeared, it without reflecting broke it from a wall if could not get otherwise. Those days posters were printed in such set and with such speed that it was difficult to find for them the place on fences. Cadet, sotsiat - revolutionary, Menshevist, levoeserovsky and Bolshevist posters were pasted one on another by such dense layers that once Read tore off layer in sixteen posters one under another. His friend and the colleague Albert Reece Williams remembered: “ Having rushed into my room and swinging a huge paper plate, he exclaimed: “ Look! At one stroke I caught all revolution and counterrevolution! “
In a forward to the book Read writes: “ In fight my sympathies were not neutral. But, telling a story of those of great days, I tried to consider events an eye of the conscientious chronicler interested in imprinting truth. “
in the Spring of 1918 John Read comes back to America and in record-breaking short time - less than in a month, working whole around the clock, writes the book “ Ten days which shook the world “. In the book twelve heads, and after the preface, before chapter 1, Read gives the most detailed introductory remarks and explanations where characterizes all political parties, the major organizations, the central committees and the other organizations of Russia. It is natural that it was incredibly difficult to publish the similar book, several copies of manuscripts were confiscated. But nevertheless in March, 1919 it managed to be let out. On the first copy John Read wrote: “ To my publisher Horatio Livrayt who is nearly ruined when printing this book “. Because brave Livrayt was the only thing in New - York who decided on the publication.
The bourgeois American press refused to publish Read`s materials about Russia, and he creates own magazines “ Revolutionary century “ and “ Communist “. In 1919 he becomes one of organizers of the Communist Labour party of America formed of the broken-away left wing of the Socialist party and edits its body “ Work " Voice;. As the delegate of Communist party of America John Read arrived in 1920 to Moscow on the II Congress of Komintern, but soon got sick with typhus and died.
In conclusion I will advise to read John Read`s book to all who want to receive a truthful picture of that far time.