What was hygiene in medieval Europe?
Often last, data on which we get from “ historical “ novels, appears in pink light. Let`s remember “ Three musketeers “. Ladies, gentlemen, honor and love, intrigues and nobility. Louvre, at last.
, however, in the palace. Not absolutely palace, but reflecting features of an era. The technology providing coexistence of big groups of people was not fulfilled yet, as left unpleasantly smelling mark on life.
I about toilets. It appears, in their huge palace there was no. What architects thought of? About sublime beauty, of course. And the nature it is also the nature what to think of it. Latrines were not considered it necessary to be arranged during a gallant era yet.
According to the eyewitness: “ In Louvre and around it, in the yard and in its vicinities, in avenues, behind doors - practically everywhere it is possible to see thousands of small groups and to smell the most different smells same - a product of natural departure living here and coming here daily “.
The great Leonardo da Vinci struck with luvrsky realities who visited Paris by the invitation of the king Francois I hastily designed for the monarch a toilet with water washout. But, as we know, many ideas of the genius outstripped the present for ages. A water toilet for the French yard - not an exception.
For our contemporaries all this looks wildly, but “ what is natural “ … Medieval Louvre - not an exception, but only part whole. Were not able to take any specific measures for the solution of hygienic problems simply and lived as it is necessary.
Inhabitants of the Parisian high-rise buildings got rid of slops simply - poured out them in a window. And incidentally not to pour from above over the stood gaping passerby, followed the rule: before pouring out slops, citizens three times loudly shouted: “ Carefully, I pour out! “
It is impossible to tell that the authorities did not fight against the phenomenon. The first law forbidding to pour out contents of chamber-pots in a window was adopted in 1270 - m to year. But it is not enough one bans, and the city sewerage did not exist yet.
Under refined dresses aristocrats carried silk linen. The reason of its popularity is simple. Parasites, fleas and louses were not found in slippery matter, they had nothing to catch there.
That insects were a problem, samples of gimmicks which can be met even in the Hermitage demonstrate. The speech about blokholovka. Noblemen ordered them from precious metals. Devices with a bait - a piece of the fur impregnated with blood put in the magnificent wigs which were often decorating the heads shaven bare.
From the point of view of the modern hygienist in distribution of insects there was nothing unusual. Requirements of hygiene is a generation of later time. And in the Middle Ages even women of quality took a bath not more often than a two-three of times in a year. The famous King - the Sun, Anna Avstriyskaya`s son Louis XIV, in general washed only two times in life, and that according to persistent recommendations of doctors.
On such civilized European background at least some Russian customs looked strange. Louis XIV even sent to Peter I`s yard of special spies to find out, than the lightest Menshikov who was weekly visiting a bath was engaged in a privacy. The king - the Sun, not being on friendly terms with water, it is possible to understand. At it did not go in that it is possible to wash so often.
However, baths baths, and in general the fragrance of streets of the Russian cities a little in what differed from the European. About “ smelly streams “ at a monument to Minin and Pozharsky wrote the Moscow newspapers in 1871. Among all Russian cities and settlements there are beginnings of the 20th century, and there was their more than one thousand, only eleven had the sewerage.
For the last hundred years life of citizens changed cardinally. Once you remember it, and, poeticizing the past, to appreciate the present.