How to hide information? Part 3
B the first and second parts it was told about concealment of information. Now we will talk about the rights and about restriction of access to data - opportunities which are given by an operating system.
Who here in tsars extreme?
for anybody, I hope, not a secret that not all users are equal among themselves. There is an administrator who can practically everything, users with the different level of access and guests deprived of civil rights. Constantly it is tempting to use the administrator rights, the majority and does, but from the point of view of safety it is not absolutely correct. Any program starts with the rights of the one who started it and that she will make, having too many rights, it is only possible to assume. And viruses do not doze.
Ideally it is necessary to work as the ordinary user, and the administrator rights to use only for control and a configuration of system. Especially as developers of operating systems initially and planned and even provided an opportunity from - under one user to start programs on behalf of another. Right-click on an icon of any program, and you will see except simple “ To Open “ also “ Start from the name “ . And for the console and command files there is a runas team . Very simply and conveniently. You work as the user and if there was a need something to change in system, then you start the necessary program on behalf of the administrator.
You do not go here, you go there! So such division into users gives us
? An opportunity to limit access to folders and files! Press the right button of a mouse on any folder and from the dropped-out menu select the " item; " Properties;. On the bookmark “ Safety “ (if it is absent - read further) it is visible who what rights has and what can do.
The operating system (the user of SYSTEM) and group of administrators (and their maybe not one) have full access and all possible rights. It is logical. And here mere mortals already have restrictions. It is possible to add the user who is not in the list, or to clean existing. For example, if to deprive of the right “ List of contents of the " folder; the user in her will see nothing. For it the folder will be empty. And if to leave only this right and to clean the others, then will see everything, but will be able to make nothing. Under the " button; In addition “ more detailed settings disappear. It is possible to define the owner, to adjust audit (i.e. tracking actions of users in this folder), to define heritability of the rights.
If you have no bookmark “ Safety “ then two reasons are possible. For users of Windows XP Pro everything is quite simple. It is necessary to open any folder and in the menu to choose “ " Service; - “ Properties of the " folder; - “ Look “. To clean a tick opposite to the " point the opened list; To Use simple general access to the " files; and then to press “ Ok “. For users of Windows XP Home everything is much more sad. In it there is no such point and the bookmark “ Safety “ will not appear. But there is an opportunity to use the utility of the command line cacls. A method more difficult and demanding some skills, but that is.
The customs gives a green light
It seems everything beautifully and elegantly. Wanted - granted the rights, did not want - took away. But, as usual, there is one big “ HO “. All these rights work, only if your operating system is loaded. It is enough to be loaded with CD, flash cards or to get access to the hard drive, having connected it to other computer, and everything will be available. From loading from external carriers you will be rescued by the password on BIOS, but at big desire and existence of sufficient time for opening of the computer even this obstacle can be bypassed.
There is a lot of methods and ways, but will not give to a full guarantee of safety of data from unauthorized access any of them. But we can increase time which is required to the malefactor for search and receiving access to our data, and is not excluded that will just bother it. Combine, try. Use different methods depending on the value of information and do not forget that a ratio “ price / quality “ works and here. Too difficult techniques of access to information can bother you soon, and you will give up this business.
Take care also the secrets!