How to understand results of blood test?
All of us repeatedly took a blood test for the analysis. As a result received the form on which “ heap “ medical terms and figures. It appears, the basic in this knowledge can understand even the ordinary patient if it knows what is meant by various terms and figures.
It should be taken into account that the players of blood are constantly changed and depends on existence of diseases, time of day, food, etc. Therefore recommend to take a blood test for the analysis in the morning on an empty stomach, as a last resort - in 1 - 1,5 hour after the breakfast but very easy. It is natural that before blood donation it is not necessary to transfer physical activities, to take medicine and to be exposed to radiation. If in one day you plan to take a blood test and to pass physioprocedures or to make a X-ray, then at first blood, and then all the rest.
If before blood donation you came from a frost, surely warm a hand, especially, if a blood test has to be taken from a finger. By the way, the finger from which will take blood has to be without wounds, grazes and injuries of skin.
Blood donation from a finger or from a vein will not be reflected in your health as in a human body there is a lot of it - about 7% of body lump. And it makes (for people of average weight) 5,5 - 6,5 liters at men and 4 - 5 liters at women. The general composition of blood all - plasma (liquid part), and in it know, probably, cellular elements - leukocytes, erythrocytes, platelets. At the same time color of blood is provided by erythrocytes - red blood cells.
And now give at least in general we will understand what and how many in blood has to be. When carrying out the general blood test usually define concentration of hemoglobin, quantity of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets, size of a gematokrit and eritrotsitarny indexes (MCV, MCH, MCHC). It should be taken into account that often on forms with results of the analysis there are norm indicators (average sizes), but they can differ a little in various clinics as their values are rather conditional.
Having received the form of the analysis, first of all pay attention to content in blood of erythrocytes, and in them - hemoglobin. Erythrocytes transfer oxygen from lungs to all tissues of a body, and deliver carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide) back, they carry out these functions at the expense of hemoglobin. The amount of hemoglobin is a little more at men (norm of 130 - 170 g/l), at his women contains from 120 to 150 g/l. If hemoglobin is measured in g/dl, then the norm will be 10 times less. Children till 10 - 13 years have norms of erythrocytes approximately as at women.
Low hemoglobin (anemia) can be a consequence of blood loss, diseases of blood and a lack in it of iron, and also a number of chronic diseases. The raised hemoglobin is usually connected with heart diseases, legochno - heart failure, a blood condensation, high physical activities.
At measurement of quantity of erythrocytes usually use two indicators: gematokrit - it is a share of erythrocytes percentage of the total amount of blood, and also the level of erythrocytes of 1 mm ³ blood, measured in millions. Approximate norm of an indicator of a gematokrit as a percentage 38 - 50 at men and 35 - 47 at women. Normal level of erythrocytes from 4,2 to 5,7 at men and from 3,8 to 5,1 at women.
The lowered quantity in blood of erythrocytes happens at deficiency in an organism of iron, protein, vitamins, metastasises of malignant tumors, the increased physical activities, a stress, malnutrition.
The increased quantity of erythrocytes in blood is noted at chronic leukoses, a blood condensation when plasma volume at preservation of quantity of erythrocytes decreases that happens at dehydration, excess perspiration, vomiting, a diarrhea, burns, the accruing hypostases and ascites.
Leukocytes (white blood cells) protect an organism from alien invasions, boryutsyas viruses and bacteria, and also purify blood of the dying-off cages. There are various types of leukocytes which can be considered in the analysis.
The maintenance of leukocytes of 4 - 10 billion on 1 liter is considered norm (it can be measured in one thousand / mkl). Including neutrophils of 1 - 6%, eosinophils of 0,5 - 5%, basophiles of 0,5 - 1%, segmentoyaderny 47 - 72%, monocytes of 3 - 11%, lymphocytes of 19 - 37%.
Increase of level of leukocytes (leykotsitoz) can testify about infectious - inflammatory processes (quinsy, pneumonia, meningitis, appendicitis, etc.) intoxications, existence of burns, injuries, sharp bleedings and internal injuries, malignant tumors.
Lowering of the level of leukocytes (leykopeniye) happens at some viral and bacterial infections (flu, viral hepatitis, measles, malaria, a rubella, tuberculosis, AIDS), rheumatoid arthritis, influence of ionizing radiation, and also a consequence of reception of a number of medicines.
Platelets - the small nuclear-free cages participating in a hemostasis. The person in liter of blood has to have 170 - 350 billion platelets. Increase of their level (trombotsitoz) can demonstrate inflammatory processes, oncological diseases, considerable blood loss and physical retension.
Lowering of the level of platelets (thrombocytopenia) it is characteristic of viral and bacterial infections, diseases of marrow, stagnant heart failure, immune diseases.
Eritrotsitarny indexes allow to characterize a condition of erythrocytes quantitatively. When carrying out blood test usually is defined by MCV (mean cell volume) - the average volume of an erythrocyte, MCH (mean cell hemoglobin) - the average content of hemoglobin in an erythrocyte, MCHC (mean cell hemoglobin concentration) - average concentration of hemoglobin in an erythrocyte.
It should be taken into account that at blood test existence of the indicators which are beyond average values does not demonstrate existence of diseases yet, and can be result of drug intake, the use of separate types of foodstuff and drinks, temporary changes in a condition of an organism, laboratory assistant`s mistake. Anyway the diagnosis will deliver to you and the doctor will appoint treatment. For receiving more objective picture of a condition of blood the repeated or profound analysis and consultation of the hematologist will not prevent.