From where you, playing cards? There are no
Among scientists a consensus about the place of origin of playing cards. As the homeland of cards consider either China, or India, or the Arab countries, or Egypt. Primogenitors of tarot cards are Egyptians. In their pack there were 78 cards (younger and senior lassos). Younger lassos had four colors of different color: staffs - green, coins - yellow, swords - blue, cups - red; four figured cards - the Pharaoh, a sivilla, the rider and the messenger; digital cards from an ace to ten.
At the time of crusades gamblings appeared in Europe. The first documentary recorded data on cards are carried to 1254. At this time Ludovic Sviatoy published edikt, forbidding on pain of punishment by a whip gambling in the territory of France.
Literally for several decades four cards colors of Taro were transformed to modern.
The pack from 72 cards was reduced to 52. 52 cards are the number of weeks in a year, four colors - four a season. Green color is a symbol of energy and vital force, spring, the West, water. In medieval cards the sign of color was represented by means of a staff, a staff, a stick with green leaves which at the printing of maps became simpler to black peak. Red color symbolized beauty, the North, spirituality. On the card of this color represented cups, bowls, hearts, books. Yellow color is a symbol of intelligence, fire, the South, business success. On a playing card represented a coin, a rhombus, the lit torch, the sun, fire, a gold jingle. Blue color - a symbol of simplicity, decency. The acorn, the crossed swords, swords was familiar to this color.
In the Middle Ages there was no unity in suits. The Italian packs carried the names “ swords “ “ cups “ “ denariyev “ (coins) and “ staffs “. In France swords were transformed in “ peaks “ cups - in “ " worms; denariya - in “ tambourines “ and “ staffs “ - in “ crosses “ or “ clubs “ Cards were painted manually and cost very much. In the 16th century of the card became simpler and began to contain only four colors and the clown (joker). In the 17th century the shirt for cards began to be done by small dotted drawing to protect it from sharpers. At the beginning of the 18th century in Italy two-headed cards appeared.
Playing cards began to come to Russia together with the European goods in the 16th century at Fedor Ioannovich`s reign. Already at the beginning of the century gambling became the troublemaker and a posyagatelnitsa on moral principles of society. In the Code of the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich (1649) the card play was qualified as a serious crime. Violators were branded the heated iron and pulled out them nostrils. At Peter I there was the first domestic production of playing cards on two small manufactories in Moscow. Encouragement of development of card manufactories with Pyotr spoke simply - the state exhausted by Northern war needed money which was brought by trade in playing cards.
In Ekaterina the Second reign and finally at Alexander I the state monopoly for production of playing cards was entered. The income from production of cards went for the maintenance of Department of the Empress Maria sponsoring children - orphans. Production of cards was developed on a state Aleksandrovsky manufactory at which since 1819 the Imperial Card factory began to work.
In the 19th century development of new drawings of playing cards began. Academicians of painting Adolf Iosifovich Sharleman and Alexander Egorovich Beydeman were engaged in it. It should be noted that now their sketches are stored in the State Russian Museum and in the Card museum of Peterhof. However in production drawings of the academician Adolf Iosifovich Sharleman which we also know now as Satin cards were started.
A. I. Sharleman did not create essentially new card style. Drawings on Satin cards had the fundamental principle so-called “ North - the German picture “ which also came from absolutely already ancient national French card pack.
The created new sketches of cards had no own name. Concept “ satin “ in the middle of the 19th century treated technology of their production. The atlas is a special grade of smooth, lustrous, brilliant silk fabric. Paper on which they were printed was grated previously with talc by special talechny cars. In 1855 dozen of packs of satin cards cost 5 rubles 40 kopeks.
Gradually all card production began to be made on satin paper, and own name Satin was strongly assigned to Sharleman`s cards. In days of the Soviet power production of playing cards was monopolized by the state.