Rus Articles Journal

Oka is not only the river or a minicar. And who exactly?

In today`s release Chronicles of war I want to address such low-studied subject as use of a cavalry. It would seem what horsemen could oppose to the motor-mechanized parts of Wehrmacht? But each sort and a type of troops played the role in this bloody slaughter which name - war.

Speaking about a cavalry, it is necessary to remember the person who just and was engaged in formation of sabers. This is one of heroes of Civil war, the general - the colonel Oka Ivanovich Gorodovikov. His name is unfairly forgotten, and those years it played a noticeable role.

First question: from where such strange name? The solution is simple - the father of future commander, on a nationality the Kalmyk, visited once the huge river (in his understanding) who was called Oka. Without thinking twice, the son of steppes whom all named into Russian of manners Ivan decided to name the son it strange for the person to

In eight years - the farm laborer Happened by

it on the farm Wet Elmuta on September 9, 1879 (according to some information it was in 1880). Lived Gorodovikova poor therefore little Oka already with 8 - summer age settled to the local rich man in podpask. However, this work did not seem to it work at all - he very much loved both the steppe, and horses. And since small years dzhigitovat on horses so that, appear, grew together with the four-footed pets.

As soon as the guy was 23 years old, he was called on service in a cavalry of Army of Donskoy. Cossacks were brought by an echelon to the Polish city of Yanov of the Lublin voivodeship. Exactly there command noticed the executive and dashing Kalmyk and sent it for study at regimental school. Soon he was appointed at first the village constable, and then the senior village constable (an unter - the officer), so when after service came back home, the father was very proud that the son was beaten out in people by

But, on the other hand, it was impossible to find decent work on the farm now. The Cossack officer to someone will not go to podpask. But in Army Don to it there was a quite good work - to learn the Cossack youth to a fancy riding. It was important also because in the world it was restless. And soon the fatal shot of Gavrila Printsip followed again Gorodovikov is called by

I on war. This time its way with fights lies to Germany. In a cavalry regiment of Oka the unter - the officer - Semyon Budenny meets another, and soon they become friends. And are at war side by side, having reached Hungary while Gorodovikov nearly dies in one of heavy fights. Wound stacks it in field hospital, and after an extract an unter - to the officer Gorodovikov declare: he is not fit for service with troops any more

Rose against the. As the friend Semyon

Went 1916, and Oka everything is persuades the administration not to write off it under pure. It is appointed in one hundred which protects an order and tranquility in the city of Sulin (nowadays - Red Sulin). Time very restless - sulinsky workers and so with big mistrust treat Cossacks, and here skirmishes still constantly break out. The workers excited by the coming revolution fussed eternally, distributed leaflets and once involved in revolutionary activity and Gorodovikov. However, in it there was nothing surprising, it was, as they say, from a farm-labourer`s family.

Everything ended with with what had to end - on suppression of disorders threw efficient Cossack parts. Speech of sulinsky workers was crushed, Oka Ivanovich by miracle avoided capture and voyenno - field tribunal, he hid on others farms at distant relatives where his Semyon Budenny who came back from war found. He - that also called the military companion with himself, to battle for bright future of the working people

At first he ordered to Budenny`s regiment a squadron, then crew, and, at last, a cavalry division. In this quality he participated in defeat of gangs of the father Makhno, then in capture of Rostov-on-Don and Nakhchivan, its division was one of the main forces at defeat of the remains of vrangelevsky troops. For successful performance of fighting tasks deserved two awards of the Red banner (1920 and 1922). And eight more years later and the third avoided

of Repressions

After war ended the high academic courses (1922), advanced training courses of the highest nachsostav (1927) courses of a partpolitpodgotovka of commanders - edinonachalnik at Voyenno - political academy (1930), Military academy of Frunze (1932) . Took active part in establishment of the Soviet power in Central Asia, its parts beat gangs of basmatches

In some sources of Oka Ivanovich moves as the person who anything was not able to do only a checker to swing. It was far not so: it had very lively wit, ability to training, however, on the other hand, he always knew what from it the administration waits for, and sought to equal these hopes.

During Stalin repressions Gorodovikov escaped, in my opinion, only because was old companion Semena Budennogo and Kliment Voroshilov which did not give on worry of the colonel - the Kalmyk. He and perfectly understood it and for two Stalin marshals was ready to gnaw through a throat to any.

The cavalry still is useful...

As for a tactical maturity of the general Gorodovikov (he received this rank one year prior to the Great Patriotic War), its judgments are very sensible, are not deprived of sense. So, at meeting of command structure of RKKA which took place from December 23 to December 30, 1940 of Oka Ivanovich made the report on how it is planned to use a cavalry in the conditions of defensive operation. In conditions when the tank and mechanized columns of the opponent can move mostly on the paved ways, quite appropriate to use a cavalry in cross-country conditions for drawing sharp counterstrokes. In addition cavalrymen are much more mobile than other parts during destruction of avialandings

Reasonableness of these ideas were rather brightly confirmed by the horsemen of the general Dovatora who managed to make deep raids on backs of the opponent during the Moscow defensive operation. It is necessary to tell that fascists were afraid of our horsemen at all not less, than legendary katyushas . If there comes the infantry, it is quite possible to be prepared for reflection of attack, and against cavalrymen to work far more difficult with

By the way, in the same report Gorodovikov analysed actions of a Hitlerite cavalry (it appears, was also such) during approach to Paris. If tanks moved rather slowly, then the cavalry every day made transitions to 80 - 90 km, than brought turmoil in ranks of defending. And here French disposed of the cavalry dullly

A Gorodovikovsk from the card did not disappear... to

From the beginning of the Great Patriotic War the general - the colonel Gorodovikov is responsible for creation and fighting capacity of sabers. In particular, near Moscow and during the Battle of Stalingrad. Having evacuated a family (Oka Ivanovich at more than mature age - in 49 years on 35 - to summer Aleksandra Mikhaylovna married, and before war they gave birth to the son called in honor of the national hero of Bashkirs by Salavat), the general - the colonel was wound on fronts. But at the end of 1942 it returned to one of the first generals the wife and the son to Moscow.

Again - in some sources of Gorodovikov call the most cruel Stalin chastener who, allegedly, laid a hand to violent deportation of Kalmyks. But how to be with the fact that one of the Kalmyk cities which are in 240 km from Elista still carries the name Gorodovikovsk?! There is on the card neither Zhdanov with Voroshilovgrad, nor Kuibyshev with Gorky any more, nor Brezhneva with Andropov, and Gorodovikovsk is not renamed. However, as well as Budyonnovsk

I one more fact: the rank of the Hero of the Soviet Union nearly 80 - summer the general - to the colonel Gorodovikov was appropriated in 1958. It was his last pleasure in life: On February 26, 1960 Oka Ivanovich died. He is buried on Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow