To whom did success in discovery of the penicillin which saved life to millions of people smile? Day on September 30, 1928, exactly 80 years ago, it is possible to call
rightfully one of the most rotary in the history of mankind. Then the Scottish microbiologist Alexander Fleming declared the discovery of penicillin. Even in the years of World War I wounded perished from sepsis, tetanus and gangrene. Trying to rescue them, surgeons applied antiseptics. Fleming conducted careful examination of the infected wounds and showed inefficiency of anti-septic tanks. Something was necessary another, capable to possess wound healing actions.
Why this saving medicine was called penicillin? The solution is simple. For the experiences in the end 20 - x years Fleming used a mold mushroom of Penicillium notatum, and the product of its activity called quite so. It is difficult for uninitiated person to understand how the mold can promote a victory of a human body over microbes and viruses? It is good still that Fleming did not doubt anything, and often affected alogism sides. Otherwise, this discovery would be late …
Scotland a little - the special song
Sources of similar “ obstinacy “ the scientist lie in his roots. He was Scot, and that says it all. Some people the only line of this proud nation consider the maniacal thrift passing into avarice without taking to understand the trouble that for Scots sometimes it is the only way of a survival …
Since ancient times in this country such custom existed: the mountain farm could hardly support more than 5 - 10 people, and therefore when children grew up, with parents there was practically always an eldest son. Younger took with themselves a bag of grits and went to England, most often to London, to study and work. On how many it this bag was enough, One man`s guess is as good as another`s, but they were forced to save to drag out livelihood on longer …
Alexander Fleming not an exception. His father, Hugh Fleming, rented at the count a farm with 100 acres of the earth which it is hardworking sowed with oats and forage crops (wheat here just did not grow ripe). As in the district there were no settlements in a radius of tens miles, and Hough had no opportunity somewhere to leave too often, he married one of daughters of the neighbor who gave rise to it five children. Survived only four, and the eldest son, the father`s namesake, had to inherit this farm.
And in 70 years managed without “ " viagras; Hough`s
- the senior was a strong, sinewy person, and his spouse early overstrained at work and though they lived together nearly a quarter of the century, she left this world still before to the husband 60 were executed. Having remained the widower, old Hough not long grieved alone, having looked after at other neighbor the very young daughter. Soon the girl became the sovereign hostess on a farm. But also the husband did not pump up - one behind another his young spouse gave birth to four children - the daughter and three sons. Alexander whom all called Alec was the third of this quartet and was born on August 6, 1881. Robert, or Bob who was born two years later … of
of the father was the last younger children practically did not remember. By that moment as they slightly - slightly grew up, he already had a stroke, and therefore was most often heated, sitting in a chair at a fireplace. It was associated with the kind grandfather rather, than with the father. When Alec was 7 years old, old Hough died …
Younger children, Alec and Bob, were provided to themselves. They spent all free time in nature: caught a trout, rabbits and hares, gathered bird`s eggs which sold to the visiting direct-sales representative 4 pence apiece. Especially they liked catching of rabbits. They had, at least, two ways. The first - with an old setter. The dog tracked down rabbits, bringing boys to a hole. And then they from two parties thrust hands into a hole at once. Who was enough a rabbit for hinder legs, that also was considered as the owner of production … Still it was more interesting to
to catch rabbits in the spring when long-eared liked to be heated at canes. The boy noticed that animals run away and hide only after to look with him in eyes. And therefore Alec and Bob passed by rabbits, watching them lateral sight. Took one detour, the second while rabbits got used. Then, having overtaken them, sharply fell on them and covered small animals with the body … Why I so in detail tell
about Fleming`s childhood? Once again to emphasize: he perfectly knew wildlife, was very observant and independent. Also was very tempered. In severe frosts of children of farmers all the same sent to school, but gave them two hot potatoes in a uniform. When hands froze, they got potato and heated palms, and at school ate “ hot-water bottles “.
“ Hostel “ in which cheerfully
In 13 years to it had to go to London where there lived his elder brother Tom who worked as the doctor - the oculist. The house which was rented by Tom was not such big, except it lived in it one more brother - John, and the economy was conducted by the sister Mary. In a year in “ hostel “ also the grown-up Bob was installed. The elder brother liked to hold in the evenings different quizes: on geography, mathematics, physics, chemistry that obviously broadened horizons at younger.
After Mary married, “ housewife “ there was one more sister - Gracie. Here so they also lived, amicably and cheerfully. Rejoiced to progress (for example, the same Alec not for long studied in the first class of Polytechnical school on Ridzhent Street, teachers, having seen, his knowledge is how various, soon transferred it to the fifth class at once), supported each other than could.
In 1899 burst English - Boer war. John, Alec, and later and Bob, registered in the Scottish regiment and left for Africa. However, the youth was protected, having sent them to the latest company which practically did not take part in military operations. But unexpectedly it turned out that the marksmen exactly here are brought together. The same Alec took the first prizes in firing more than once. And a bit later the brothers who had a reputation for quite good swimmers entered into water polo team of the regiment …
Professor brought up the pupil
A Alexander Fleming got to medicine in 1902 when came to medical school of Saint - Mary. He studied brilliantly, having various knowledge. And, a practical training was devoted not only narrow specialty: Alec had and to deliver at home, and to do insignificant surgeries, the truth he did not love the last, having disgust to “ to work “ on a live body … At that time Almrot Wright, already famous then bacteriologist was considered as
as one of the most brilliant professors of Saint Mary. He created Bacteriological office where several tens enthusiastic pupils were all day long pushed at hospital. There was among them also Alexander Fleming whom professor considered as the most perspective. And even when World War I burst and Wright went to serve as the army doctor to France, the assistant he took Fleming.
Here so, step by step Alexander also approached the opening. To be fair it is necessary to tell that in 1928 when penicillin was discovered, it was learned to be got in a look, ready for injections, not at once. But all the same, sooner or later, it “ came “ in hospitals … Unperturbable Fleming
B 1945 the Nobel Prize on physiology and medicine was awarded by
in common to Fleming, Cheyn and Florey “ for opening, penicillin and its curative influence at various infectious diseases “. And a year before Alexander was built in knights … Alexander Fleming was awarded with
In the next 10 years 25 honourable degrees, 26 medals, 18 awards, 13 awards and honorary membership in 89 academies of Sciences and scientific organizations. It is necessary to add that it was quite happy in marriage, his spouse Sar which was called Sarin was a senior nurse and kept private clinic in the center of London. There was this event on December 23, 1915. Alec was then the young doctor promising. But how Sarin spoke of the husband, should be written down and learned to each wife: “ “ Alec is the great person, but nobody knows it " yet;. For the sake of such words it was possible to pull up trees!
By the way, and her sister, Elisabeth, having become a widow/widower, married the brother Alec - Jonah. Alexander thought of the children very much, devoting them a lot of time, was a beautiful father. However a lot of things in the house kept on Sarin, her husband was so unperturbable that it is difficult to present it. Here only one example about which Alec`s wife told: “ We are with it and the kid went on the boat to fish. Unexpectedly Fleming cut a pike. The child in excitement jumped and fell to the small river. Fleming remained to sit, he watched that desperately fighting fish did not leave, and observed how I pulled out the boy. He did not throw a rod... “
Sir Fleming did not become on March 11, 1955. He died on hands at the second wife Amalia (Sarin died by then). Amalia, as well as the husband, was microbiologist …