Rus Articles Journal

How the pirate Francis Drake became the famous admiral and the English knight? Part 1

the Course of life of this person is surprising: in 16 years the captain, the successful pirate who made the second after Magellan circumnavigation, the English sir and the admiral who became original a thunder-storm of the seas and crushed Invincible armada . And everything began in the middle of the XVI century in the town of Tavistok of the English county of Devonshire where in the farmer`s family approximately in 1540 the firstborn named by Francis was born. Subsequently in a family 11 more children, and the father, Edmund Drake were added to support big family, became the preacher and in 1549 moved to Kent, having leased the lands.

Francis since the childhood dreamed of distant sea campaigns, glory and wealth. It began a way to implementation of the dream in 13 years, having employed by the ship`s boy on the small ship. Small it was the sensible seaman, and already soon became the assistant to the captain, and in 16 (according to other data in 18) years bought a small bark on which began to transport goods. But not enough profit, what a difference piracy trade and trade in slaves give usual trade swimmings. And Francis in 1567, ordering the ship in a squadron of the distant relative John Hawkins, goes to long voyage to coast of Africa for slaves, and then to Vest - India where it is possible to be engaged in a robbery of the coast and hijacking of the Spanish ships.

This campaign, though ended with a failure, gave to the young captain experience of long voyages. When by Hawkins`s ships frayed by storm were engaged in repair in the port of Veracruz that on east coast of Mexico, they were blocked by the Spanish squadron. Only several ships including to the ship under Drake`s command managed to escape with fight. Having returned to England, the Drag hook began to prepare for new campaigns.

He made several successful swimmings in Vest - India where he plundered vessels in the Caribbean Sea, burned several coastal towns and settlements, seized the Spanish ships in harbor of Cartagena. Its disembarkation on Isthmus of Panama where pirates managed to crush several Spanish caravans delivering the extracted silver to the coast were the most successful.

Now the successful captain was well known in England, and in November, 1577 Drake was sent to official expedition to the coast of America to the Pacific Ocean. It was entrusted with the opening and reduction under the power of the English queen of new lands, and, above all - a robbery of the Spanish territories and the ships transporting silver and gold. To confuse Spaniards, the rumor was spread that Drake`s squadron goes to Alexandria.

This time under Drake`s command there were already five ships, he hoisted the colors on 100 - a ton leader Pelican . Drake`s ship bore 18 guns, had three masts - fok and a grotto with direct sails and bizan with a slanting sail. It was something average between karakky and a galleon. At rather small sizes the ship possessed fine seaworthy qualities.

It should be noted that the queen Elizabeth who in hope for solid profit even presented to Drake gifts took part in preparation of a campaign: the embroidered sea cap, a silk scarf on which gold words were embroidered: Let always stores and God " directs you; and also refined products, sweets and aromas.

Swimming began successfully. The ships came to an end of January, 1578 to the coast of Morocco where occupied the city of Mogadar, having received a large number of various goods as repayment. Then went to coast of America where were engaged in robberies. Here by several ships plot ripened, their teams decided to separate from Drake and to be engaged in independent piracy. But plot was opened and cruelly suppressed, Drake even had to hang up one captain. Having reformed teams and having thrown two most affected ships, Francis went to the South to the Strait of Magellan.

The squadron passed the passage successfully, but after it got to the storm sweeping the ships which were not fated to gather any more. One ship crashed against rocks, took out another back to the passage and his captain decided to return to England independently. And the ship of Drake which he renamed for fine seaworthy qualities in " by this time; Gold fallow deer carried away far on the South. Involuntarily Drake made an important geographical discovery, it turned out that Tierra Del Fuego is not a ledge of the unknown Southern continent, and only the large island behind which the high sea proceeds. Subsequently the wide passage between Antarctica and Tierra Del Fuego called by the name of Drake.

To float further on the South Drake did not decide and went to the North, taking and plundering on the way the coastal cities. Especially large jackpot waited for it in Valparaiso. Here pirates got the ship standing in harbor, loaded gold and expensive goods, and in the city there was a large supply of gold dust. But the main thing - by the Spanish ship there were confidential sea charts with the detailed description of the western coast of America.

The Spanish cities on the coast did not wait for attack of British and were not ready to its repulse. Going along the coast, Drake`s corsairs occupied the city in the country, filling hold gold. And near Isthmus of Panama they managed to board the large Spanish ship Karafuego on which there were more than 1,5 tons of gold and a large amount of silver.

Drake not only plundered Spaniards, he passed along the coast of America considerably to the north of the Spanish territories. In the middle of June he stuck to the coast for repair and replenishment of provisions, and at the same time investigated the region around modern San - Frantsisko, having declared it the English possession and having given it the name New Albion . In 1936 in this place called Drake`s bay found a copper plate with date on June 17, 1579 and an inscription that this territory is possession of the queen Elizabeth.

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