Under what conditions lack of sight is compensated?
to answer the question raised in the title of article, I will provide some theories of compensation of sight. I will not load
long and difficult names of these theories, huge lists of their authors, I will just try to explain an essence of each of them briefly. So:
1. Biologizatorsky theory. According to it if the person has no sight since the birth or he lost ability to see at mature age, to the place of sight take up at once: more “ sharp “ hearing, hypersensibility of skin, more developed sense of smell. The theory says that the sleporozhdyonny person already initially possesses the raised susceptibility and sensitivity of other sense organs. And it means that specially the blind person does not need to develop anything that everything for him was made by the nature. But long-term experience of visual impairment specialists (the teachers who are engaged with blind persons) disproves such position.
2. The theory over - compensations. Her creators consider that the person who lost, for example, ability to see will develop more accelerated rates, than his healthy peer. That is, according to this concept, the blind child will surpass the age-mates (sighted people) in a level of development of moral and strong-willed qualities, logical thinking, memory, the speech. This theory not quite considers a role of education and social influence in formation of mechanisms of compensation.
3. Sotsiologizatorsky or Marxist theory. According to it, the person can develop fully only in collective and if “ to place “ the blind child in “ able to see “ Wednesday to bring up and train together with able to see peers according to the same program and the same means, such child in the development will not differ from healthy age-mates at all. In other words, lack of sight is easily compensated if to ignore all differences, features of the blind person. It is clear, that in this case the blind person will not receive due consideration, features of his perception of world around will not be considered.
4. The theory according to which it is necessary to integrate equally the blind child (to reintegrate late gone blind person) in “ able to see “ society and at the same time to consider the features connected with absence or weakening of sight. It means that blind school students need to be trained according to the special program, but not on complexity level, and in forms and methods of training (it is not necessary to reduce a training material, to give only superficial knowledge, it is only necessary to give it in a form, other, available to the blind person, and other methods). Adherents of this theory claim that the person since the birth deprived of sight at observance of certain conditions will become a personality: the master of his own live, the member of labor collective, the professional of the business, the family man undertaking all burdens and cares. What conditions are meant by authors of the concept?
1. Culture of the appeal of society with disabled people, including blind persons.
2. Cultural, educational level of a concrete family where there is a person with sight violation.
3. The general level of civilization of citizens of the concrete state where the blind person lives.
4. Existence of opportunities for adaptation and secondary adaptation of blind persons: convenient roads for circulation with a cane, an opportunity to freely get any education in any relevant institution, social security: privileges, medical care, possibility of free employment, availability and possibility of acquisition or free receiving technical means: canes, computers, dictophones, the speaking hours, etc. of
Ya I adhere, of course, to the latest theory.
Thus, the blind or visually impaired person at observance of the called conditions on the intellectual, physical and mental development will not differ from the sighted person, but this development will have some characteristics, and, the more sokhranno sight, the, naturally, there are less features of development.