As appeared and disappeared “ madness “?
Any our word or concept - the essence is passing - are invented and forgotten consciously or under freight of centuries or thaw under an experience prism. The same can be told also about the concept “ madness “ - that is gross violation of mentality with an incorrect assessment of, world around and ridiculous illogical behavior.
From the moment of origin of human consciousness people began to allocate different options of behavior similar, and categories of minorities were born. Categories of minorities - " were born; obsessed “ spirits, criminals, “ unreasonable “ (term of the early Middle Ages “) . The last were understood as drunkards, freethinkers, sumasbroda, profligates, tramps, suicides - the list could vary, however existence of this category of people remained invariable.
Competence of correction “ unreasonable “ it was distributed between representatives of clergy (temple and monastic medicine, inquisition), law enforcement agencies or their analogs and representatives of preclassical medicine. The measures applied to this minority were very diverse - from full exile from society (“ ships of fools “ or ours “ false men, both zhenka, and maids and in the afternoon, and go on the yards in an ugly look at night and shiver, and shout by loud voices “) before contempt in the monastery and legal protection, from isolation in institutions as the Parisian General general) Hospital up to a fire and a stick. Many of such people specially tried to get to prison - there at least was a roof over the head, regularly fed and there was no practice of systematic punishments and mockeries.
So, in “ 175 - y year, September in 13 - y day, the boyar and hetman Ivan Martynovich Bryukhovetsky in Gadyache ordered to burn five women of witches yes the sixth Godyatsky colonel the wife … for the fact that they it, the hetman, and the wife it spoiled and a chakhotny illness on them filled … the same women stole at the getmanovy wife the child from a belly “. The salutary effect of a stick was explained by the fact that it best of all returns the person to the world of reality.
In process of development of law and the European medicine from “ unreasonable “ the category " was allocated; mad “ - people with obviously unhealthy mentality. For them began to build special institutions, however life of patients (transfer from the Latin word “ suffering “) not strongly changed. They contained in insanitary conditions, were exposed to mockeries and punishments, painful ways of treatment (run in the closed wheel, rubbing in in cuts of cauteries, an okatyvaniye ice water). Especially hardly it was necessary attempting upon the life - if they avoided the death penalty for attempt, then were doomed to suffer the life rest in any fixing devices (narrow chambers - niches, chests with cuts for the head and a lot of things still).
On attestations of eyewitnesses, the worst menageries made sometimes more pleasant impression in comparison with houses for mad where the narrowness, an intolerable smell, a roar and a lash reigned. Word “ Bedlam “ (distorted “ Bethlehem “) it did not become casual nominal. It is the hospital in old London founded in 1537 on the place of Bethlehem abbey. It is considered the first self-supporting medical institution - on holidays for a moderate payment here as in a zoo, the public was allowed. Patients could be teased and humiliated.
However life began to introduce gradually the amendments and in the gloomy area of madness. Control from local authorities concerning conditions of keeping of patients began, it was authorized to patient to work (on fields, on cleaning, to women - to be engaged in needlework). In Fedor Alekseevich`s reign in 1677 the law according to which along with blind, deaf and mute had also no right to operate the property of the drunkard and " was issued; silly “ who were already considered “ sick “. In final types these provisions were approved by emperors Peter I (1722 - the decree “ About survey of fools in the senate “ regarding the validity to noble service) and Peter III (the middle of the 18th century - situation about “ dollgauza “ - houses of public contempt for the chronic insane). The first dollgauz in Russia was open at the former Obukhovsk hospital in St. Petersburg (the modern address - Fontanka Emb., 106).
Finally idea “ madnesses “ it was liquidated thanks to efforts of the French doctor, teacher, reformer Philip Pinel. Except brilliant clinical descriptions and strong belief that damage of the central nervous system (heredity and vital experiences) is the cornerstone of a mental disorder he vividly was interested in psychology of patients and education of due human qualities at doctors, was a combination of hardness and kindness.
After its appointment as the chief physician of the Parisian clinics Bisetr and Salpetriyer were liquidated insanitary conditions in the beginning, cruel supervisors are dismissed, food of patients is improved and, at last, in 1795 chains were removed from patients. This moment is imprinted on a canvas, but the most interesting that many contemporaries and colleagues for this act declared Pinel mad. It did not prevent it to remain on posts up to the death in 1826.
Already gave the first sprouts the general psychology, hypnotism, psychoanalysis, theory of higher nervous activity. The era madnesses ended.]