What is a synchrophasotron? Who thought up it and constructed?
on March 4, 1907 in Zhytomyr future academician Vladimir Iosifovich Wexler was born.
As the fates decree in 1921 it appears the homeless child in Moscow and gets to the house - a commune in Khamovniki. Having graduated in a commune from school - a devyatiletka, began to work at plant as the electrician where received the Komsomol permit in institute. In 1931 graduated from external Moscow power institute and began to work in laboratory of the X-ray diffraction analysis of All-Union electrotechnical institute in Lefortov where was engaged in construction of measuring devices and studying of methods of measurement of streams of charged particles.
In 1937 Wexler passed into Physical institute of Academy of Sciences of the USSR of P. N. Lebedev (FIAN) where was engaged in studying of space beams. With their help physicists studied transformations of chemical elements and processes of nuclear interactions. Wexler participated in expeditions of scientists to Elbrus, and then to Pamir, later, where streams of charged particles of high energy which could not be received in terrestrial laboratories were caught.
Already in the twenties many scientists - nuclear physicists had a thought - as it would be good to receive particles such high “ space “ energiya in laboratory by means of reliable devices. Theoretically everything was clear - electric field has to disperse charged particle. However linear accelerators did not allow to receive particles of big energiya. In 1929 the American scientist E. Lawrence offered a design of the accelerator in which the particle moves on a spiral, passing repeatedly same interval between two electrodes. Bends a trajectory of a particle and twists the uniform magnetic field directed perpendicular to the orbit plane. The accelerator was called a cyclotron. In 1930 - 1931 Lawrence with employees constructed the first cyclotron at the Californian university (USA). For this invention it in 1939 was conferred the Nobel Prize.
Since 1938 Wexler was connected to creation of tsiklotoron in our country. But also they had a limit of acceleration of particles. New improvements were required. Works were interrupted by war, and Wexler during evacuation in Kazan together with other scientists researched, directly necessary for the front. Only in 1943 Wexler managed to return to problems of accelerators. Difficulty was that according to the theory of relativity of Einstein with increase in speed also the mass of particles grew, they deviated a circular trajectory and were extinguished about cyclotron walls.
In February, 1944 V. I. Wexler put forward revolutionary idea how to break a power barrier of a cyclotron. He called the method autophasing. Wexler suggested to increase synchronously in time a magnetic field in a cyclotron, feeding a magnet with alternating current in a phase with a frequency of the address of particles. Then it will turn out that on average the frequency of the address of particles on a circle will be automatically supported to the equal frequency of the dispersing electric field. Such accelerator was called a synchrophasotron.
In a year irrespective of Wexler the principle of autophasing was opened by the American scientist E. Macmillan. Later both of them were presented to award for it to the Nobel Prize. But at us all works were secret and were not presented to the Nobel committee. And one Macmillan an award was not given. However, in 1957 he got the Nobel Prize in chemistry for other work.
In 1949 at the initiative of V. I. Wexler and S. I. Vavilov scientists and engineers began to project the first in our country synchrophasotron on 10 billion an electron - volt in Dubna. Its start-up in operation took place in 1957. Wexler was the permanent director of Laboratory of high energiya of the Joint institute of nuclear researches in Dubna.
Vladimir Iosifovich Wexler suddenly died on September 20, 1966 from a repeated heart attack. He was only 59 years old.]