To lump Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, according to him, “ it zaprodatsya with all giblets “?
on February 2, 1838, 170 years ago, in the German city of Stettin (nowadays - the Polish Szczecin) in a family of the small businessman the boy was born. Its surname just should gain strength because to her legendariest representative then there were no 20 also yet. But we will not play dark - the boy in Stettin was named Adolf, and the surname on the father was - Marx.
Friedrich Marx never was successful because it is hardly possible to call work which he chose for himself very demanded - he manufactured the tower clock. And did everything thoroughly, for ages. It is no wonder that on several honeycombs of kilometers soon there is no town hall of a small town left which hours would not decorate Marx or his competitors. It seemed, business came to a standstill.
But here still big troubles followed. In Germany in 1848 cholera epidemic flashed. Friedrich who sometimes is driving about on other cities and forced to spend the night in cheap hotels, not particularly where caught this infection. Busied, he saw a doctor at the first symptoms of a disease not at once, turned, did not fall down yet. And when the doctor, at last, visited the patient - situation was critical. So 10 - summer Adolf lost the father …
the Fatherly capitals were “ are eaten “ within several years. It was necessary to make the way independently. On the advice of relatives Adolf after the termination of a gymnasium comes to commercial school. After its termination Marx tried not one business, but good luck did not smile anywhere. So far he did not understand the main thing - if further to continue to rush about so, risk to kowtow all life on foreign uncle. It is necessary to stop the choice on something one.
He chose book business, than drew to the own harm many damnations. The matter is that in this sector of economy there was very fierce competition and to break through in “ people “ it was improbable. But Adolf was already defined for himself: will not begin to look for another. And even those kopeks which paid it in its first " firm; Court book trade of Ginstorf “ did not stop young Marx. It needed experience!
Three years of work at Ginstorf taught much the young man. Having left from “ court trade “ it passed into the Berlin firm of Girshvald. This shop used glory of the best in Europe on the range of literature in all languages. And though “ dairy rivers and land of milk and honey “ again it did not turn out, Marx achieved the main thing - started talking about it as about honest small which not bad understands the business. But it did not add a salary, and the guy decided to give up on favor to winners, to return to the hometown and to arrive as relatives will tell.
Fortunately, the destiny managed to interfere. Ferdinand Avgustovich Bitepazh, the famous Russian book seller and the commission agent of the Leipzig firms, appealed to society of the German book sellers to recommend it the vigorous and capable young man well familiar with statement of book matter in Germany. In a word, Adolf instead of Stettin appeared in St. Petersburg where worked five years for Bitepazha. After that it left to M. Wolf.
Finally Adolf Marx in 1869 when he decided to issue the illustrated magazine for family reading got on feet. By then he worked 10 years at the Russian market and could judge customs “ foreign “ for it people not by hearsay. The same year the consent was received, and the first issue of the magazine " was published on December 18, 1870; Field “. The number of subscribers of the magazine in the first year of its existence made 9 thousand people.
Why it at once gained popularity? You, dear readers “ Schools of life “ you will not believe if I tell that our Internet - the magazine repeats exact contours “ Fields “ nearly 140 - summer prescription. Here it was possible to read both entertaining biographic sketches of outstanding people, and fascinating descriptions of travel to the far-away and close countries, to the Russian remote place and small quarters of big cities. Any hostess could find the recipe of a tasty dish or councils for education of the child, here since first day of his life. A specific place was held by the popular articles “ on sciences and art “ concerning medicine. And, by the itself, sufficient place was taken by modern literature including translated, foreign authors. In “ To the Field “ there was only one taboo: it was impossible to write about policy! It and in other editions was above a roof!
The first appendix to “ To the Field “ to the dispatched subscribers it is free, there was a " magazine; Parisian fashions “ where it was not just told that now carry in the French capital, but also patterns, patterns for needlework, drawings of the pleasant hats, sweaters, a coat etc. were given. That is it was possible and not to go to Paris, everything was before eyes. Permission of the Ministry of Internal Affairs about release to " became the second step; To the Field “ “ the free awards consisting in pictures, photos, portraits, geographical and other cards, plans, public games, calendars, etc. the " editions; …
The magazine became such demanded that by 1875 “ Field “ doubled number of subscribers, in their 1877 there were already 30 thousand, and in 1878 increased up to 43 thousand. Having stepped through treasured number “ 100 thousand “ Marx decided that came it is time to be engaged more densely in those writers who became glory of the Russian literature long ago. Since 1894 free applications to “ To the Field “ the publisher published authors after whose death there passed not less than 50 years - in this case need for payment of royalties disappeared: for example, among such authors there were D. Fonvizin, I. Koltsov, I. Polezhayev, Catherine II, etc. Further Marx had an opportunity to get the rights and from successors of classics. Such publishing policy bore fruit: the subscription for the magazine increased up to 250 thousand copies. And from - for low cost of the edition of A. F. Marx extended on the Russian province circulations unprecedented before.
Marx was very well able to count money. And still he very much loved the readers, and tried not to feel sorry for them for anything. “ I always stuck to such rule: instead of publishing 2000 copies of the book on 15 rubles, I published 5 thousand on 7. And seldom was mistaken in calculation. If even my fifteen-ruble edition dispersed from success, I would be more happy, having distributed the same book in double number of copies, but at the price of twice cheaper “ - Adolf Fridrikhovich said. Whether many modern publishers can tell the same?!
And still it was very generous to writers. He paid the same Goncharov the fee unprecedented for those times - 1000 rubles for author`s page. And to others was not less generous including to widows and relatives of the died writers. He offered them the contract in which the fee was provided in two - three times are higher than what could be offered in other editions. If the widow agreed, then point saying that all works of this writer, including letters, sketches will be etc. published only in the free application to " was introduced in the contract; To the Field “.
Considering the fact that by means of literary work to grow rich and in those days it was almost impossible, and Marx offered concrete money, it it is possible to consider to live in some measure the financial assistant to writers allowing them more - less tolerably. As Anton Pavlovich Chekhov " admitted one of letters to friends; I zaprodatsya to Marx with all giblets “ …
It is necessary to add that, eventually, Marx managed to achieve unknown success, having finished number of subscribers “ Fields “ to 275 thousand people by 1917. Also the annual subscription - in 1900 - x years on the magazine with all appendices in St. Petersburg - 5,50 rubles a year, in Moscow - 6,25, in Odessa - 6,50, across Russia - 7 rubles and abroad - 10 rubles cost rather not much.
It is a pity that Marx did not live up to the triumph. He died on November 4, 1904, without having lived only three months to 75 - the anniversaries. But “ Field “ did not die together with it and prospered until in Russia did not begin the “ triumphal procession “ Soviet power! Then it was tried “ to revive “ but nothing good left this invention. However, with “ tracing-papers “ “ Fields “ in the USSR there was a " magazine; Spark “ for the first time issued in 1912. But, as old residents speak, comparison was in favor of Marx...]