What role was played in the Soviet nuclear project by Claus Fuchs?
on March 1, 1950 in London the physicist Claus Fuchs (Claus Foocks) was sentenced to 14 years of imprisonment for nuclear espionage in favor of the USSR. On memoirs of heads of the Soviet nuclear program the data provided by Fuchs allowed to reduce approximately by a year work on an atomic bomb. Perhaps, it played a crucial role that the American plans of nuclear attack to the Soviet Union and remained on paper. And the data obtained from Fuchs much more surpassed in importance information such him “ colleagues “ as Allan Nann May, Harry Gold, Davies Gringlass, and also Julius and Ethel Rozenbergi.
Emil Julius Claus Fuchs was born on December 29, 1911 in the city of Ryuselgeym, Germany. In 1930 - 1931 studied at the Leipzig university where entered the German sotsiat - democratic party, however in 1932 left it and entered communistic. With Hitler`s arrival to the power, in 1933 Fuchs goes to France, and then to England, comes to postgraduate study and to go in for nuclear physics at N. Mott in University of Bristol. After defense of a thesis in 1936, Fuchs moves to Edinburgh where he works for Max Born.
Since the beginning of 1941 Fuchs works in University of Birmingham, under supervision of professor R. Payerls directing there creation of atomic weapons. In October, 1941 on the initiative Fuchs came into contact with the secretary of the Soviet military attache Semyon Kremer to which told about the confidential works on creation of atomic weapons which are conducted in England and expressed readiness to transfer information available to it to the Soviet Union. In 1942 Fuchs obtains the English citizenship, and during 1942 - 1943 transfers data on creation of an atomic bomb in Great Britain. The communist on beliefs, donated the most confidential data.
In 1943 Fuchs among other English nuclear physicists was sent to the USA for participation in the Manhattan project. From the middle of 1944 on January, 1945 Fuchs worked in the confidential nuclear center in Los - Alamos for Oppengeymer where proved as the first-class scientist, made a noticeable contribution to design of gas diffusive installations. In January, 1945 Fuchs transferred to a svyaznik written information on an uranium bomb and at the same time reported about works on creation of a plutonium bomb in the USA. On return to Great Britain since June, 1946 Fuchs directs department of theoretical physics in the center of nuclear researches in Harwell. For 1949 Fuchs regularly transferred the major classified American and English information on nuclear subject.
Since 1949, as a result of treachery of the deserter, Fuchs is suspected by FBI and MI5 of change. He was arrested in January, 1950. and the trial of it which sentenced Fuchs to 14 years of prison in which he spent nine and a half years took place on March 1 and on June 24, 1959 it was ahead of schedule released for good behavior. Fuchs moves to GDR where he becomes the deputy director of Institute of nuclear physics in Rossendorf. There it deals with problems of creation of reactors - both power, and research. In 1972 it is elected the full member of Academy of Sciences of GDR. In 1975 it is conferred the State award GDR of the first degree, and in 1979 it is awarded the order to Karl Marx - the highest award of GDR.
Only in 1992 the first in our country, the academician Yu. B. Khariton published information on an investigation role in the nuclear project. He especially emphasized the exclusive value of the data obtained from Claus Fuchs. In 1959 Khariton through D.F. Ustinov petitioned for Fuchs`s rewarding with the state award of the USSR.
K. Fuchs in 1988 died and it is buried in Berlin.]