What “ island “ at British long time was considered “ Island of bad luck “?
on January 26, 1788, 220 years ago, to the Botanical gulf of New South Wales there arrived expedition under command of Arthur Phillip. And though Europeans already several times appeared by then at coast of the far Green continent, the captain Phillip appointed, by the way, the first governor of Australia arrived to the foreign land not one. In holds of the ships there was 750 “ suicide bombers “ with which in the last minute execution was replaced with the reference, and also 220 sailors with wives and children. About one hundred more British were “ are enlisted “ for execution of various duties. Someone had to protect criminals!
… The second half of the 18th century began for British not brilliantly. Citizens of the USA rebelled and did not want to recognize more domination of the British crown. Their leader colonel George Washington on the illegal congress in Philadelphia in 1774 urged the supporters to begin war against British. He was supported! In many respects thanks to the fact that the transatlantic colony for many years was the place of the reference of the British who committed serious criminal offenses and sentenced to death. To these desperate heads on the former homeland to begin new life was uncomfortable, they were waited only by death, and here ruthlessness to enemies was equated to blessings and promised dividends in the future. Here the rabble also rebelled.
And here on the help to the Americans battling for freedom came to the rescue “ loyal friends “ British - French (it I already mentioned in article about the Odessa city`s mayor Lanzherona), and as it was sung in the known Soviet smash hit, “ bloody fight " was started;. Generally, when on September 3, 1783 England officially recognized independence of the USA, before citizens of the British crown there was a difficult question: where now to put murderers, maniacs and tyrants?! And here someone remembered the far and low-populated continent opened for 10 years earlier by James Cook . There also Arthur Phillip`s expedition was directed.
It is necessary to tell that immigrants were prepared for moving thoroughly. Cargo holds of the ship were filled with wheat bags, seeds of the main plants which were cultivated in England. British once and for all wanted to stake out for themselves the territory which Cook (to him “ eatings up “ natives) declared the territory of Great Britain.
It is remarkable that for the same purposes: “ to stake out “ Australia, still on August 1, 1785 two five hundred-ton frigates “ Bussol “ and “ Astrolabe “ under the general team of Jean Francois Gallo of de La Perouza from blessing of the king Louis XVI left the French Brest towards South America. French, naturally, heard that Cook opened new lands, but where to look for them, unlike British, did not know therefore it was necessary to them much “ to poblukat “ on ocean open spaces.
By the way, it is necessary to mention also a historical somersault. The team in de La Perouza`s expedition was selected with special care. Very much the unknown sixteen-year-old second lieutenant from the Parisian military school wanted to get to it also. It was included in the preliminary list of team, but then for some reason deleted. How here not to remember a destiny hand! The young man remained in France, and first very much regretted that he did not become the pioneer of new lands. As you, probably, already guessed, it was the Corsican by name Napoleon Bonaparte .
But we will return to Arthur Phillip. He landed on the place of future Sydney, and only - only began to grow roots as heaved in sight … “ Bussol “ and “ Astrolabe “. Emergence “ enemy “ squadrons it was very unexpected, both for Filip, and for La Perouz. But as French was much less, they decided to retire …
a year Later from La Perouz the last news arrived. And only almost in forty years, in May, 1826 it was authentically established that “ Bussol “ and “ Astrolabe “ broke against rocks, the escaped crew members instead of agreeing with natives, opened fire at once. Someone said that the seafarer remained to live with natives, others told that he died in this fight. But a strange thing - many present dictionaries stubborn indicate that La Perouz died in 1783, but describe the expedition which began in 1785 slightly below and underline that it was headed by La Perouz. Perhaps, a bit later I will address destiny of this great seafarer.
… So, French retired, and British remained. What they saw on the Green continent very much differed from their native England. In - the first, soils were quickly exhausted from - for lack of organic fertilizer, and, in - the second, the magnificent eucalyptus woods just irritated them. You should not forget also that “ penalized persons “ in the homeland all got used to take ready, and here it was necessary to plow from is dark and to is dark. In a word, there were enough problems.
Most likely for this reason the English authorities long did not manage “ to entice “ on “ Island of bad luck “ as christened Australia, “ free “ immigrants (Filip`s seamen it is not counted). Only 6 years later here profits the first “ volunteers “ (how here not to remember that the Soviet people mastered a virgin soil much quicker!) . So the population of the continent grew very slowly: in 1800 there were 5 thousand people, a decade later here - 11,5 thousand people. And only opening of extensive pastures in the depth of the continent became certain “ bait “. Fans of mutton fattened corpulent herds here.
But, anyway, even 42 years later after arrival of expedition of Filip, in 1830, on the continent there were 63 thousand banished and only 14 thousand free immigrants. And here British were involuntarily accompanied... Americans. Hardly in 1849 in the San port - Frantsisko landed the first landing which laid the foundation “ to a gold-rush “ in the USA as the government of England declared that it gold reserves in Australia is incomparable more, than in California. And inhabitants of foggy Albion jerked behind gold! Only in 10 next years, from 1851 to 1860 - y year, the population of the green continent increased much - to 1,2 million people. And further there was a rapid growth of a mining industry, and the wheel of economy began to gain the steam.
From the moment of disembarkation of British there passed almost two and a quarter centuries. But that is surprising, being “ Island of bad luck “ and today continues to attract to itself hunters to change of places. According to the latest data, every fourth (!) present resident of Australia was born out of the Green continent. And that most of the others - descendants of the people sentenced once in England to death Australians prefer to keep mum. Let bygones be bygones!]