Who forged the future in “ To the Smithy “?
Proletarian culture, proletarian writers - the forgotten concepts forbidden by a surname cult, successful prose writers...
After February revolution of 1917 the organization proletarian literaturno - art and cultural education, called " was spontaneously formed; Proletkult “ and its first conference took place on October 16 - 19, 1917. Three years later it the studios and circles which united nearly 400 thousand people striving for new culture were created across all Russia about twenty magazines were issued. Leaders “ Proletkult “ supported a klassovost of art and culture, defended the beliefs rigidly, irreconcilably, branding discordant.
At the beginning of 1920 several poets and critics of Proletkult were sent from this organization and with assistance of A. V. Lunacharsky created section of proletarian writers at literary department of the National commissariat of education, having called the " group; Smithy “ though one of them, Kirillov Vladimir Timofeyevich (1889 - 1943), glorified themselves for ages in the lines of the poem “ We “ in December, 1917 when Anatoly Vasilyevich violently protested against destruction of monuments of culture: “ For the sake of ours Tomorrow - we will burn Raphael, we will destroy the museums, we will crush arts flowers “) .
The destiny will be unmerciful to the Soviet poet - the destroyer participating in revolutionary movement of seamen: in days of the New Economic Policy he was in a depression and endured creative crisis, during Big terror of companion Stalin was illegally repressed and, despite rehabilitation, any his poem was not included into the first volume “ Soviet poetry “ BVL.
Except Kirillov founders of the literary association “ Smithy “ there were poets:
Gerasimov Mikhail Prokofyevich (1889 - 1939) published before revolution in the Bolshevist " editions; Truth “ and “ Proletarian “ In 1921 it left party and in the years of Big terror was shot, posthumously rehabilitated;
Aleksandrovsky Vasily Dmitriyevich (1897 - 1934) known for the collections of verses “ Solar way “ “ Revolt “ “ Morning “ “ Steps “ “ " Wind;. Any its poem was not included into the first volume “ Soviet poetry “ BVL;
Obradovich Sergey Aleksandrovich (1892 - 1956), the poet and the critic who worked five years (1922 - 1927) by M. I. Ulyanova`s invitation the manager of department “ Truths “. In days of the New Economic Policy endured creative crisis, further was engaged in the poetic translations, wrote critiques and lived till sixty four years;
Poletayev Nikolay Gavrilovich (1889 - 1939 of the ave.), the poet writing on subjects of life of the basement poor published in 1926 the collection of verses “ Glaring light “;
Childbirth Semyon Abramovich (1893 - 1968) poet and critic, author of collections of verses “ My sowing “ “ Dash of summer lightnings “ “ Break “ “ Steel system “ etc., the responsible secretary of All-Union association of proletarian writers (1924 - 1926), the editor aggressively - the radical magazine “ On a post “ (1923 - 1925), in the next years worked as the poet - the translator and lived till seventy five years;
Sannikov Grigory Aleksandrovich (1899 - 1969), the poet who was writing verses and poems on revolutionary socialist construction, lived till seventy years;
Kazin Vasily Vasilyevich (1898 - 1981) the poet writing on the released work, the only long-liver from founders “ Smithies “ whose poems “ Kirill and Mefodiy “ “ Whether light is that? “ “ Working May “ etc. entered the first volume “ Soviet poetry “ BVL.
In March, 1920 new association began to let out with assistance of A. V. Lunacharsky literaturno - the art magazine “ Smithy “. All from 1920 to 1922 there were nine numbers on which pages the fierce debate with Proletkult was printed and campaign for the organization of the All-Russian union of proletarian writers was carried out.
After poets in “ Smithy “ entered:
writer Serafimovich Alexander Serafimovich (Popov) (1863 - 1949) criticizing in the works bourgeois society even before revolution (the novel “ The City in the steppe “ story “ " Sand; stories). In the twenties started the historical epic about civil war “ Iron stream “ (1924), edited the " magazine; Creativity “ headed several years the " magazine; October “ wrote sketches, stories, the autobiographical story;
the beginning prose writer Fyodor Vasilyevich Gladkov, the former teacher working in the twenties on the novel “ " Cement; published several stories before revolution;
the participant of revolutionary movement, future famous writer Novikov - the Surf Alexey Silych (Novikov) (1877 - 1944), the author of works about life of seamen, the historical epic “ Tsushima “;
prose writer Neverov Alexander Sergeyevich (Skobelev) (1886 - 1923) writing stories on rural life: “ Tashkent - the city grain “ “ Andron useless “ “ Geese are swans “ stories and plays.
Everything, entering in “ Smithy “ passed through tests by a candidate experience and only then became full members. The presidium of this literaturno - art group was made by three prose writers: Fyodor Gladkov, Vladimir Bakhmetyev, Nikolay Lyashko (Lyashchenko). Nonresident writers and poets lived the twentieth years in the family hostel " in the beginning; Smithies “ on the Arbat, in Starokonyushenny Lane, Fyodor Gladkov temporarily lodged with the wife Tatyana Nilovna and two sons in a tiny room of a mansion at Smolenskaya Square. Each of them harbored ambitions, tried to settle thoroughly in the state capital with dictatorship of native party and seldom who dared to oppose opinion of the majority.
Summer of 1923. Alexander Neverov read the new story “ Tashkent - the city grain “ To Novikov - to the Surf and Gladkov - it it very much was pleasant, promised it great success. And then there was a prenepriyatny meeting “ Smithies “ not approved this talented work, including rural life and the main character Mishka Dodonov unworthy attention of the proletarian prose writer. Nobody protected works of the writer, supported, and he could not endure a failure - died suddenly at the thirty seventh birthday. Fyodor Gladkov came with gifts and, having seen dead Neverov, fainted. Alexander Sergeyevich Skobelev early died, but his story “ Tashkent - the city grain “ and other works in a chetyryokhtomnik were included into a treasury of the Soviet prose.
Spring of 1924. The Central Election Commission of the USSR sent to OGPU the resolution directed against the intellectuals, conferring special powers according to the conclusion in concentration camps and the reference of the persons constituting danger to the Soviet power and discussions in literature became sharper. Especially the Soviet critical magazine " exercised the wit in ruthless criticism and labeling; On a post “. In May, 1924 the news department of RCP(b) of the Central Committee held at itself expanded meeting with participation of writers, journalists and critics with discussion of questions of the management of the literary movement, the organizations of proletarian literature and the attitude towards writers “ to fellow travelers “.
Definition “ Fellow traveler “ entered in 1923. Lev Trotsky in one of the articles of the cycle “ Literature and revolution “: “ The Fellow traveler we call in literature, as well as in policy, the one who, hobbling and being unsteady, goes to famous point on the same way on which we go with you much further “. “ Fellow travelers “ called writers Alexey Tolstoy, Boris Lavrenyov, Leonid Leonov, Vyacheslav Shishkov and another, not entering the commonwealth writers and also who united in groups: “ Serapionova brothers “ “ LEF “ “ Imagists “ “ Pass “ “ Literary center of constructivists “.
Critics in the " magazine; On a post “ belonged to “ to fellow travelers “ hostilely, including their useless for the embodiment of ideas of revolution. This magazine was considered as the defender of proletarian literature and a loud-hailer of party. There was it in Moscow till 1926 under Rodov Semyon Abramovich`s edition (1893 - 1968), one of organizers “ Smithies “ literary critic Lelevich (Kalmanson Laboriya Gilevich) (1901 - 1945) illegally repressed in 30 - x years, the author of the famous books “ Careers of proletarian literature “ “ On a literary post. Articles and notes “ and publicist Volin Boris Mikhaylovich (Fradkin) (1886 - 1957) the research associate of Institute of Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of CPSU since 1945, the author of works on history of party and to policy issues.
At one of conferences the writer Serafimovich did not sustain charges “ Smithies “ in a melkoburzhuaznost and indignantly asked “ napostovets “ for what they, unfortunate ambitious men, fight. “ We Fight for the power “ - that answered frankly, and all laughed at this frank recognition, without representing then what danger is concealed in themselves by an absolutism of board. Since 1926 the magazine began to be called “ On a literary post “ but kept, rejection of dissidents, an irreconcilable orientation to not proletarian writers, classical inheritance.
So strict censorship arose, sweeping aside democratic development, promoting lawlessness of the civilian population at dictatorship of one party. All discussions will stop soon - the opinion of censors and companion Stalin will be the most important. The society which is not resisting slander, lawlessness and dictatorship is doomed to tyranny long and cruel.]