Who forged “ Smithy “? Proletarian culture, proletarian writers - the forgotten concepts reminding of origin of strict party censorship about the surnames forbidden by a cult of personality about untimely lost lives, about the prose writers who achieved success, having won against
furious competitive fight.
After February revolution of 1917 the organization proletarian literaturno - art and cultural education, called " was spontaneously formed; Proletkult “ and its first conference took place on October 16 - 19, 1917. Only three years later, despite civil war, it issued about twenty magazines and opened the studios and circles which united nearly 400 thousand people striving for new culture across all Russia. Leaders of Proletkult supported an art klassovost, defending the beliefs rigidly and irreconcilably.
At the beginning of 1920. several poets and critics of Proletkult were sent from this organization and created section of proletarian writers at literary department of the National commissariat of education, having called the " group; Smithy “. This decision was supported by Lunacharsky in spite of the fact that one of them, the poet Kirillov Vladimir Timofeyevich (1889 - 1943) glorified itself in the lines of the poem “ We “ in December, 1917 when Anatoly Vasilyevich violently protested against destruction of monuments of culture: “ For the sake of ours Tomorrow - we will burn Raphael, we will destroy the museums, we will crush arts flowers “. The destiny was unmerciful to the Soviet poet - the destroyer: in days of the New Economic Policy he was in a depression, endured creative crisis, during Stalin Big terror was repressed and, despite rehabilitation, any its poem was not included into the first volume “ Soviet poetry “ Libraries of the world literature.
Other poets are founders of the literary association “ Smithy “:
Gerasimov Mikhail Prokofyevich (1889 - 1939) publishing the compositions in the " editions; Truth “ and “ Proletarian “ even before revolution. In the years of repressions it was shot and posthumously rehabilitated;
Aleksandrovsky Vasily Dmitriyevich (1897 - 1934) ;
Obradovich Sergey Aleksandrovich (1892 - 1956), in days of the New Economic Policy endured creative crisis and further was engaged in the poetic translations;
Poletayev Nikolay Gavrilovich (1889 - 1935) writing on subjects of life of the basement poor;
of Childbirth Semyon Abramovich (1893 - 1968), responsible secretary of All-Union association of proletarian writers (1924 - 1926), editor of the " magazine; On a post “ (1923 - 1925), in the next years worked as the poet - the translator;
Sannikov Grigory Aleksandrovich (1899 - 1969) composing verses and poems on socialist construction;
Kazin Vasily Vasilyevich (1898 - 1981) writing on the released work, only of founders “ Smithies “ whose poems “ Kirill and Mefodiy “ “ Working May “ etc. entered the first volume “ Soviet poetry “ BVL.
In March, 1920 new association began to let out with assistance of A. V. Lunacharsky literaturno - the art magazine “ Smithy “. There were nine numbers on which pages the fierce debate with Proletkult was printed and campaign for the organization of the All-Russian union of proletarian writers was carried out.
Right after poets in “ Smithy “ entered:
the writer Serafimovich Alexander Serafimovich (Popov) (1863 - 1949) who started in the twenties the novel “ Iron stream “ (1924) narrating about civil war;
the beginning prose writer Gladkov Fyodor Vasilyevich, the former teacher working in the twenties on the novel “ " Cement; published several stories before revolution;
the writer Novikov - the Surf Alexey Silych (Novikov) (1877 - 1944), future author of the famous historical epic “ Tsushima “;
prose writer Neverov Alexander Sergeyevich (Skobelev) (1886 - 1923) writing on rural life.
All entering in “ Smithy “ passed through tests by a candidate experience and only then became full members. Nonresident writers and poets lived in the twenties in the family hostel “ Smithies “ on the Arbat, in Starokonyushenny Lane. Each of them harbored ambitions, tried to settle thoroughly in the state capital with dictatorship of native party and seldom who dared to oppose opinion of the majority.
In the summer 1923 of Alexander Neverov read to writers to Novikov - to the Surf and Gladkov the new story “ Tashkent - the city grain “ - it very much was pleasant to them, designated great success. And then there was a meeting “ Smithies “ “ forging “ writers, the crushed this talented work counted rural life and the main character Mishka Dodonov unworthy attention of the proletarian prose writer. Nobody protected the writer, supported at a difficult moment. Alexander Sergeyevich Skobelev early died, he died suddenly at the thirty seventh birthday, but its story “ Tashkent - the city grain “ and other works of four-volume collected works were included into a treasury of the Soviet prose.
Spring of 1924 of the Central Election Commission of the USSR sent to OGPU the resolution directed against the intellectuals, conferring special powers according to the conclusion in concentration camps and discussions in literature became sharper. Especially the Soviet critical magazine " exercised the wit in ruthless criticism and labeling; On a post “. In May, 1924 the news department of RCP(b) of the Central Committee held at itself expanded meeting with participation of writers, journalists and critics with discussion of questions of the management of the literary movement, the organizations of proletarian literature and the attitude towards writers “ to fellow travelers “.
Definition “ Fellow traveler “ entered in 1923. Lev Trotsky in one of the articles of the cycle “ Literature and revolution “: “ The Fellow traveler we call in literature, as well as in policy, the one who, hobbling and being unsteady, goes to famous point on the same way on which we go with you much further “. “ Fellow travelers “ called Alexey Tolstoy, Boris Lavrenyov, Leonid Leonov, Vyacheslav Shishkov and other writers who were not entering the commonwealth of writers, and also united in groups: “ Serapionova brothers “ “ LEF “ “ Imagists “ “ Pass “ “ Literary center of constructivists “.
Critics in the " magazine; On a post “ belonged to “ to fellow travelers “ hostilely, including their useless for the embodiment of ideas of revolution. This it is aggressive - the radical magazine was considered as the defender of proletarian literature and a loud-hailer of party. It was published till 1926. under Rodov Semyon Abramovich`s edition (1893 - 1968), one of organizers “ Smithies “ Lelevich (Kalmanson Laboriya Gilevich) (1901 - 1945) repressed in 30 - x years, and Volin Boris Mikhaylovich (Fradkin) (1886 - 1957) author of numerous works on history of party and to policy issues.
At one of conferences the writer Serafimovich revolted with charge “ Smithies “ in a melkoburzhuaznost, asked “ napostovets “ for what they, unfortunate ambitious men, fight. “ We Fight for the power “ - that answered frankly, and all laughed at this frank recognition, without representing then what danger is concealed in themselves by an absolutism of board. Since 1926 the magazine began to be called “ On a literary post “ but kept an irreconcilable orientation to dissent, not proletarian writers, classical inheritance.
Then, in the twenties, strict Soviet censorship arose, sweeping aside democratic development, promoting lawlessness of the civilian population at dictatorship of one party. All discussions will stop soon - the opinion of censors and companion Stalin will be the most important. The society which is not resisting slander, lawlessness and dictatorship is doomed to tyranny long and cruel.
Sources: MSE of 1931, Materials of discussions of 1923 - 1925, Reminiscence of Fyodor Gladkov. ]