How the Red Cross stepped over the international borders?
the Idea of creation of the international organization which could give help to the victims of war on both sides of the front was born at Swiss Henri Dunand. It was preceded by its participation in the help to wounded in time free - Italo - the Austrian war of 1859 and studying of experience of the help to wounded during the Crimean war of 1854 - 55 when from the Russian side sisters of mercy of the Krestovozdvizhensky community actively worked, and from allies - sisters of mercy under the leadership of Florence Naytingeyl.
At the beginning of February, 1863 the Geneva society of encouragement of the public benefit decided to create the commission for realization of idea of Dunand. On February 17 the commission consisting of 5 people including Henri Dunand, founded the International committee on assistance to wounded soldiers. Since 1876 it began to be called the International Committee of the Red Cross (MKKK, International Committee of the Red Cross - ICRC).
In October, 1863. the meeting of representatives of 16 states who approved creation of Committee and accepted the image of its emblem - a red cross on a white background was held. In several months the new emblem of the international protection - the Red Cross - was for the first time used during the military conflict between Prussia and Denmark from - for duchies Shlezvig and Golstein.
The idea of international aid to wounded received a wide international resonance and on August 24, 1864 official representatives of 12 states signed the convention on improvement of the situation of patients and wounded in warring armies. The Geneva convention of 1864 became the first international legal document guaranteeing a neutrality of medical personnel, the equipment and establishments.
Russia supported the Convention, and began to take active part in international aid to wounded. On May 3, 1867 Alexander II approved the charter of Society of care about wounded and sick soldiers which in 1879. it was renamed into the Russian Society of the Red Cross (RSRC). From the first days of creation Society acquired the considerable rights. It was promoted by the fact that it was under the patronage of the empress, and the emperor, all grand dukes and princesses, representatives of the aristocracy and highest clergy became its honorary members.
In 1868 at the initiative of ROKK in St. Petersburg there took place the International conference which adopted the Declaration forbidding use in military operations of explosive bullets. With active participation of Russia conferences in Brussels (1874) and the Hague were convoked (1899) the prepared Convention on laws and customs of overland war and the provisions of the Geneva convention of 1864 which made decisions on distribution on protection of wounded in sea war.
Russko - the Turkish war of 1877 - 78 became the first serious check of opportunities of ROKK. Almost all medical care of POKK " army; charged “ pull. Infirmaries in the back of field army were open, sanitary trains which transported more than 200 thousand patients and wounded are created, mobile medical groups and dressing points for work in close proximity to places of fights are created.
The end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th centuries were marked by creation of many national societies of the Red Cross and development of the international cooperation in this sphere. The international conferences in which work representatives of MKKK, national societies and State Parties of the Geneva convention took part began to be held periodically. Till 1908 such conferences it was carried out nine, including in 1902 in St. Petersburg.
From the beginning of World War I of MKKK began to pay the main attention not to wounded (them national societies of the Red Cross generally were engaged), but the prisoner of war. In Geneva the Agency of information and the help to prisoners of all countries in which volunteers worked was created. During war the agency registered more than 7 million prisoners, established destiny of a significant amount of missing persons. Representatives of the Red Cross controlled observance of solutions of the Hague conference of 1907 on keeping of prisoners of war, tried to obtain visit of camps, organized correspondence of prisoners of war with relatives and receiving parcels by them. Activity of MKKK in the years of war gained the international recognition and in 1917 was noted by Nobel Peace Prize.
After MKKK end of war actively participated in the organization of repatriation of millions of refugees and homecomings of the former prisoners of war. In 1919 the national societies of the Red Cross working irrespective of MKKK created League of societies of the Red Cross which began to coordinate not only the help to the victims of war, but also natural disasters. Since then MKKK, League of societies of the Red Cross and national societies received the generalized name “ International Red Cross “. In 1986 the new name - " was accepted; International movement of the Red Cross and Red Crescent “. Emergence of a half moon is connected with the fact that originally Turkey (1876) and then and many Muslim countries accepted Red Crescent as an emblem of international aid to wounded.
During the period between world wars of MKKK promoted acceptance of a number of the international legal documents regulating rules of warfare and keeping of prisoners of war. The convention on prisoners of war in 1929 was ratified by all large states, except Japan and the USSR.
From the beginning of World War II of MKKK created Agency on affairs of prisoners of war in which several thousands of volunteers worked. Thanks to activity of the Red Cross thousands of prisoners of war, the civilians who are contained in camps and refugees were rescued. MKK was succeeded even to organize the help to Jews in the territory of Germany and the countries occupied by it. Activity of MKKK during war was noted by the second Nobel Peace Prize awarded in 1945
Vigorous activity of MKKK continues and now. In the territory of the Russian Federation the Russian society of the Red Cross which enjoys broad state support works. It actively interacts with MKKK and the International Federation of societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent. Unfortunately, the international conflicts, acts of terrorism, natural disasters and technogenic accidents create for it a wide field of activity.
At the beginning of the new millennium the International movement of the Red Cross and Red Crescent accepted as official already the third symbol - “ red crystal “. It is connected with the fact that some states for religious reasons do not want to use a cross or a half moon as a symbol.
145 years the Red Cross, following the motto “ Per humanitatem ad pacem “ (Through humanity to the world), saves lives of people where it cannot be done or do not want to do official government institutions.]