How in Russia the officer case was created?
the Russian officer case as a layer of the professional military experts holding command positions in army arose together with emergence of continuous military formations with steady internal structure.
In Russia the beginning of creation of the officer case was put in the 17th century by which beginning the Russian armed forces consisted of two parts:
- sluzhily people “ on the fatherland “ i.e. employees on a hereditary class duty. Soldiers of local army - a noble militia which received earth plots for the service - estates treated them;
- sluzhily people “ on the " device; Sagittariuses, gunners, policemen of Cossacks, soldiers of regiments of a new system who received for service “ stern “ - the monetary or natural pay and separate privileges (the right to go in duty-free for craft and trade). Besides, for the period of military operations groups of the Volga people, and also " were attracted; datochny people “ who were taken on certain norms from merchants, posadsky people, monasteries etc. the centurion or centesimal the head was
the Only constant officer position (rank) in a local cavalry. In streletsky parts of officer positions there was more: head (commander of a regiment), semi-head or five-centesimal head, centurion and Pentecostal. Cossacks had atamans and Cossack captains.
The Digit order (a noble militia) and the Streletsky order (streletsky parts) knew appointments to positions. Military ranks, in modern understanding, then did not exist, and the persons having nation-wide ranks or ranks which there were three groups were appointed to command positions:
ranks Duma : boyars, okolnichy, dumny noblemen, dumny clerks;
ranks sluzhily Moscow : stolnik, solicitors, noblemen Moscow, residents;
ranks sluzhily policemen or provincial : noblemen are elective, children seigniorial domestic, children is seigniorial policemen.
Except them there was a small group of persons, having court ranks, and a significant amount of clerks.
The having ranks served “ on the fatherland “ also made nobility. The nobility in modern understanding at that time was usually designated by the term “ shlyakhetstvo “.
Boyars, okolnichy and dumny noblemen were appointed to the highest command positions, were voivodes of regiments (big, the right and left hand, advanced, sentry, zasadny) which were formed only for the period of war, were included into the highest structures of military management.
Representatives of sluzhily Moscow ranks made “ monarchic regiment “ according to the status it corresponded to the arisen late guard, accompanied the tsar in military campaigns, were appointed to high command positions, including voivodes and the heads of minor regiments and separate groups, were a part of the military of management, were used for performance of state significant instructions.
Provincial noblemen were attracted in turn for service in the capital, joined in “ monarchic regiment “ were appointed to low command positions (noblemen elective), went to distant military campaigns and bore a guard service on borders of the state (children seigniorial domestic) or bore gorodovy and obsidional service (children is seigniorial policemen).
In the province young representatives of sluzhily estate began service with a rank “ children seigniorial “ and above a rank “ nobleman Moscow “ practically did not rise. Sons of boyars and okolnichy began service solicitors, at worst - noblemen Moscow. Appointment them in “ children seigniorial “ the disgrace was perceived as very severe punishment and, even.
Clerks from capital orders were appointed to quite high command positions. They could be a part of the military of management, head artillery in marching army and groups from datochny people, to direct fortification works and construction of fortresses.
Appointment to positions of representatives Duma and the senior part of the Moscow ranks was carried out on mestnichesky system and depended not on abilities of the candidate, and on his blood. The principle was rigid - more well-born cannot serve under the beginning at less well-born. But, unfortunately, the talent of a military leader is not transferred with genes and, often, regiments very mediocre voivodes ordered.
The majority of the capital and provincial nobility was appointed to positions and climbed a high-ranking ladder depending on office merits.
Emergence in the Russian army of officer ranks of modern type is connected with attraction on service of foreigners. Originally formed the companies headed by captains or captains of them, and during the Smolensk campaign of 1632 - 34 created the regiments “ overseas system “ with accurate command hierarchy: the colonel - the big regimental lieutenant (lieutenant colonel) - the major - the captain (captain) - the lieutenant - the ensign. And to commanders to foreigners were appointed “ doublers “ the Russian noblemen, with assignment of the corresponding officer ranks by it. After a campaign of the shelf were dismissed, but experience did not go to waste.
In the early forties the 17th century formation of the regiments " begins again; overseas system “ which are divided on soldier`s (pedestrian), reytarsky and dragoon. In their second half of the century already more than seventy. At this time in the Russian army the first generalships appear: the general (meets since 1655), the general - the lieutenant (since 1659), the general - the major (since 1661) . Regiments of a new system are completed not only foreigners, in them the number of the Russian soldiers from sluzhily people who are made in officer and generalships constantly increases. Appointment to positions and production in ranks in regiments of a new system the Overseas order knew.
Despite emergence of regiments of a new system, a basis of the Russian army at the end of the 17th century the local cavalry and streletsky parts continue to make. But essential transformations concerned also them. In 1680 the decree of the tsar Fedor Alekseevich in streletsky regiments entered ranks of the colonel, lieutenant colonel and captain. In 1682 the mestnichesky system of appointment to positions was cancelled, and not well-born officers had a possibility of significant office growth. There is a change of public consciousness among sluzhily people, they begin to get used that appointment to officer positions depends not only on merits of ancestors, but also on military knowledge and abilities that receiving the first officer rank by the not well-born soldier puts it level with noblemen and, in essence, allows to order them.
At the end of the 17th century in the Russian army the foundation for creation of the officer case was laid, finally which Peter I should create still.]