Whether the cinema can be poetry? (Strokes to Alexander Dovzhenko`s portrait)
It came to cinema when he was 32 years old. Charlie Chaplin will tell about him that in his face the Slavic peoples gave to world cinema of the most great artist and poet. He will be called the genius during lifetime, but also today very few people experienced up to the end all depth and scale of his genius.
The genius will write in the diary that he never received moral satisfaction from one premiere and for nothing spent so many years of life and laborious work, and as could create fine pictures much. Also put, perhaps, mainly, not in the poor technical capabilities which were not allowing to recreate creative plans in all completeness. And in what had to be created almost always with “ the cut-off wings “ …
“ If to choose between beauty and the truth, I choose beauty. In it deeper truth, than in only one naked truth. Truly only what is fine “ , - Alexander Petrovich Dovzhenko in the diary on April 30, 1944, almost 15 years later after an exit to screens of the movie " will write ; Earth “ (1930) . Since that moment up to now for cinema there passed the whole eternity. Plot “ Earth “ too simple, and the idea - naive and not actual for certain will seem to today`s viewer. Present school students vaguely imagine that the word " means; dispossession of kulaks “ and in what sense of events about which narrate shots of mute it is black - the white movie. But for some reason still this picture is carried to number of the best cinemas for all history. Long ago it was interesting to me why. And, at last having got acquainted with it, I thought that, perhaps, its there would be enough one to call Alexander Dovzhenko ingenious.
And in due time this director was misunderstood neither the viewer, nor the country leaders. Though, maybe, just Stalin also understood it too well. Not for nothing Dovzhenko after an exit “ Zvenigora “ (1928) and “ Earth “ thought that it for certain “ will arrest and will eat “ as “ Ukrainian bourgeois nationalist “. In its press “ propesochil “ what was cost by only the humiliating feuilleton of Demyan Bedny in the " newspaper; News “. Dovzhenko, by own recognition in “ Autobiographies “ (1939), after it “ turned gray and grew old for several days “.
And the great director sincerely trusted in that “ bright future “ which was promised by Bolsheviks. His main characters are young Komsomol members, carriers of the revolutionary idea conducting mankind to new, happy life. And in this future the Ukrainian people at last are happy, it has tremendous richness of the native earth. Ukraine at last rose from knees, and it is not broken off any more on part by neighboring states.
Ideas which in principle are absolutely incompatible with each other were organically weaved in its movies. To take at least “ To Zvenigor “. I am not surprised that its emergence on screens, on the one hand, delivered to Dovzhenko in one row with the largest Soviet film directors of that time Eisenstein and Pudovkin, and with another - caused very ambiguous reaction of the audience. This work was so large-scale, captured history of Ukraine nearly since the time of Scythians before the beginning of the 20th century. How freely Dovzhenko handles in the movie chronology, appeared unusually and difficult for spectator audience. The metaphors and images used in a picture easily would be apprehended in the literary work, but on the screen they were unclear to general public. Alexander Dovzhenko, first of all, was an artist and the poet who “ sang the picture as the song “.
After “ Zvenigora “ was “ Arsenal “ (1929) , devoted to revolt of Bolsheviks at the Kiev small-arms factory. It is the story already about quite real events, but also here at Dovzhenko as in the fairy tale, horses speak by human voices (taking into account that silent cinema - by means of text inserts), the main character “ bullets do not take “ in literal sense. However “ Earth “ … “ Earth “ according to many, became top of film creativity of Dovzhenko. But not because in it it settled the potential, not because the sound cinema in something deprived its movies of figurativeness and expressiveness. But because after “ Earth “ it became almost impossible to create. Severe criticism exhausted from Dovzhenko forces and inspiration.
In 1934 he will move to Moscow and will address Stalin for support. The leader of the people will play a role of the savior for Dovzhenko, but from now on each decision of the director, every line of the scenario, each finished shooting shot will be subjected to the most severe censorship. And in completion of everything, Dovzhenko will forbid to work at Ukraine. There will be it, however, a bit later. When it submits to Stalin on acquaintance the scenario “ Ukraine on " fire; devoted to events of World War II. And again - charges of nationalism, of decadent mood. All this again drives the director in the deepest depression. On July 27, 1945 he will make a diary entry: “ The Companion my Stalin, when you would be even a god, I also then would not believe you that I am a nationalist who should be branded and maltreated. really the love to the people is a nationalism? “ we Will leave
filosofsko now - political disputes which can drag on for a long time, and behind them we will lose the main thing - Beauty - Truth in dovzhenkovsky understanding. I still did not share with you the impressions of viewing " yet; Earth “! I will not retell a plot - at desire on the Internet you will find detailed reviews. But if it is possible, find and download this movie. Feel love to life not in vague esoteric sense, and each section of a body as Dovzhenko could transfer it in the shots. The apples poured by juice … The boundless field waving under wind breath … Young, beautiful girls whose skirts shamelessly plays wind and bares their fat, seductive white calves … And a rain in the last minutes of the movie … The clear water which is washing away all passing and false, giving the new birth to all live. That is why and now this movie can be interesting to the viewer. No matter, what political forces today in power, it is unimportant that the main plot of the movie is naive and torn off from the present. Experience beauty in all human as it the great director … felt
… I do not put an end in the story. Because in article only slightly concerned part of the creative biography of the Ukrainian director. And still because many of diaries, letters and other papers of Dovzhenko are still strictly secret. So Alexander Petrovich, Yuli Solntsev`s widow bequeathed. In 2009, according to her will, at last it will be possible to remove from them a signature stamp “ top secret “. Whether it will shed light on the personality Dovzhenko? Whether will relieve of unsoluble contradictions of researchers of its biography? Will show time …]