What future waits for the Ukrainian gutny glass?
of B “ Complete works of laws of the Russian Empire “ for 1720 it is written: “ The Great Sovereign specified “ mirror glass plants envy in Kiev in the decent place; and at those plants to do mirror glasses and crystal ware... “.
The decree - the decree, but concrete bottles, glasses and vases became not according to sketches of the tsar, they were done by our, Ukrainian glass blowers trained on our, Ukrainian traditions. And our, Ukrainian world was reflected in their works.
Even it is difficult to call their bottles bottles - so bizzare shape was given them by masters. It and the ridiculous little men for stability supplied “ tail “ and exotic animals, most often bears, lions, griffins.
Many vessels represented a livestock - rams, bulls, goats. Sources of this, speaking to language of science, antropozoomorfnost, it is necessary to look for in mythological thinking of our pagan ancestors.
Bottles of simpler form decorated with a modelled frame, painted with oil and enamel in three - four paints, applied bright images of the same animals, birds, fishes, flowers. The Ukrainian masters did not neglect cutting and an engraving. As they were carried out exclusively manually, each product of steklodel is unique.
The Ukrainian masters were not limited to bottles, they made the mass of other types of ware - decanters, cups, beer mugs. Vases, sugar bowls and even inkwells were not forgotten. In a word, did everything that is so necessary in life.
Besides usual, greenish, the glass decoloured by manganese was issued. If that was taken much, glass got beautiful is red - a violet shade. Let out also the blue glass tinted by cobalt.
There was a unique style of the Ukrainian gutny glass.
And if in the XII-XIII centuries of creation of masters of Kievan Rus` in quality surpassed the best foreign samples, then by the 18th century the Ukrainian products became fashionable so that began to compete considerably with foreign and to drive them out of the market. To avoid the competition, even the Moscow and St. Petersburg plants tried to imitate them.
And then - revolution, wars and, as a result, recession of glass production. It was necessary to steklodela and in years " not easier; reorganizations “. Not all glass plants endured inflation.
In the mid-nineties after a long and painful agony the largest Kiev plant of art glass was declared the bankrupt. It is hard to say what destiny waits for the richest collection of products of his masters.
With the museums the situation is even worse, than with plants. Preparing this article, I came into the State museum of the Ukrainian folk decorative art that in the territory of Kiyevo - Pechersky Monastery. The impression is tremendous. More precisely, fantastically depressing.
I cannot tell what to watch there is nothing. Exhibits are, and even very interesting. But here that confuses. There were I in the museum and in last years. Also noticed that now the quantity of exhibits was for some reason reduced. Also tourists disappeared. In two hours of my stay in the hall where precious samples of products from glass are collected, there was no (!) visitor.
And such museum can be made the profitable enterprise. And not due to speculative sale of exhibits, and using the richest knowledge accumulated by research associates of the museum, recreating the lost technologies and unique samples. But not to be engaged in this scientist. Put them - to study.
Really we in the country will not have a businessman who could invest favourably money in the most valuable historical property - the Ukrainian gutny glass?]