What did our ancestors write with - drew - drew? Evolution of a pencil...
History of a pencil per se began with use in the 14th century of cores from lead with zinc or tin . Such image was quite easily erased by make-shifts: grain crumb or pumice. At silver addition, on the contrary, it remained resistant, neudalimy.
Charcoal continued to be used, as well as in the ancient time, but any more not in the form of brands from a fire, and, for example, specially processing in the furnace willow sticks in the pot sealed by clay.
Next century the " fields were found; black stone “ - graphite. According to one (more popular) version, for the first time it happened in Piedmont (Italy), on another - the beginning of use of graphite we are obliged to the British shepherds from Cumberland. Having noticed that hair of sheep blackens when they rub about local rocks, observant pastors reported “ where it is necessary “ and men of science drew a conclusion on presence at surface rocks of lead or “ black stone “.
Misters chemists, do not worry! The lead which appeared carbon - unless the only surprise which was given to mankind by the nature? Even at V. Dahl we read: “ Graphite - a mineral of which the so-called lead pencil is made; it is coal or carbon, with small impurity of " iron; . So history of a pencil had “ lead “ beginning. The version with the British sheep, of course, is very picturesque, especially if to close eyes to the fact that on - Turkic “ penalty “ - it “ black “ and “ you will give “ - stone.
And so-called “ Parisian pencil “ (“ " sauce;) it was made of mix of white clay and black soot. It was good that, gives a black trace on paper and scratches it less. To them graphic artists still draw. In France in the 15th century the pastel by addition to chalk of pigments and fats was invented. Used at the same time arabic gum or juice of a fig, for example. Leonardo da Vinci belongs a merit of opening of a sanguine - “ red " chalk;. It is the natural kaolin painted by iron oxides.
In the 17th century production of graphitic pencils in Nuremberg (Germany) was arranged. Mixing graphitic powder with sulfur and glue, enterprising Germans delivered cores inexpensive, though not too qualitative. To hide it, placed in the middle of the wooden case low-grade production, and at the edges - pure graphite.
At the end of the 18th century the Czech manufacturer Y. Gartnut, letting out a laboratory glassware, connected clay and graphite, having laid the foundation to pencil production well-known “ KOH - I - NOOR “. In France approximately at the same time of N. - J. Conte independently invented a pencil in the form of a thin stick from the mix of graphite powder and clay laid between two plates. It managed to reach the high durability of cores and to find proportions of ingredients which put a basis of modern classification of pencils by hardness. Nikola - Jacques Conte, having taken out the patent for the invention in January, 1795, founded pencil factory of the name with which history well-known and until now firms began.
And a six-sided form of the case of a pencil the count Lothar von Faberkastl (Faber - Castell ) - for more steady position on inclined surfaces for the letter offered in the middle of the 19th century. He is the author of standard length and diameter of a pencil.
A bit later, in 1869 American Alonso Townsend Kross (Cross) invented a mechanical pencil in which the graphitic core is placed in a metal tube and as necessary moves forward instead of sharpening of the wooden case - it became a prototype of today`s collet pencils.
Fans of statistics counted that one ordinary wooden pencil it is possible to draw a line of 56 km or to write more than 40 thousand words. And here Steinbeck, speak, could use up to 60 pencils in one day. And Hemingway wrote only with wooden pencils too.
It is worth returning once again to a mention of firm H. - J. Conte. At the end of the 20th century it let out Conte Evolution - the pencil which is not containing a tree which is made on one production line in only one minute or even slightly less. The recipe is confidential. It is known only that it prepares on the basis of synthetic rubber which solution is extended in the form of spaghetti, it is cut on section, sharpened since one end, cut off from another (to which the eraser can be added) and becomes covered with paint.
There is also other curious fact of modern advantages, apparently, of such artless tool as a pencil. In space department of the USA (NASA) the pen was over a year developed for the letter in space (on the project which cost was estimated in 3,5 million dollars), and the Soviet astronauts used trouble-free pencils.
There is such evolution! can be read to
About the most ancient tools for the letter here]