Who most longer in our country carried three stars of the Hero of Socialist Work?
It was in group of scientists - the nuclear physicists who received on the third star of the Hero in 1954. Also endured all of them. Last time it saw with stars on a breast in the spring of 1996 at celebration 100 - the anniversaries of the Nobel laureate Nikolay Semyonov. And very few people know that he at the beginning of 30 - also prompted to Semyonov a scientific subject for which solution the Nobel Prize was awarded. He lived 92 years, it is more than a half of them - in the closed city of Arzamas - 16 which also created on the place chosen in 150 years prior to it by Seraphim of Sarov.
On February 27, 2008 104 years " are executed; To the Chief designer “ the first in our country and number of the subsequent atomic bombs. Still as the physicist`s student - mechanical faculty of the Leningrad polytechnical institute the physics - technical institute under the leadership of Semyonov begins to work in 1921 in well-known Leningrad. Research of critical temperature of condensation of metal vapors and detection that it depends on their density was the first scientific work of Khariton (1924). Then together with Semyonov and Shalnikov studies interaction of molecules with a surface of solid bodies.
In 1926 Khariton and his graduate student Valta, investigating a luminescence at oxidation of vapors of phosphorus oxygen, opened the phenomenon of the lower limit of ignition on oxygen pressure. There was their article “ Oxidation of vapors of phosphorus with small pressure “ where were for the first time described it is branched out - chain reactions. The same year Khariton is sent on training to England to Rutherford, and Semenov conducts more detailed research of criterion of ignition and in 1927 gives the first theoretical interpretation of the mechanism of the phenomena which was a basis for creation of the theory is branched out - chain reactions. The copy of the book of Semenov " remained; Chain reactions “ left in 1934, with a donative inscription: “ To Dear Yuli Borisovich who the first pushed my thought to the area of chain reactions “.
Upon return from England, Khariton moves to Moscow in created by Semyonov Institut of chemical physics where since 1931 heads laboratory of explosives. Studies the theory of burning, a detonation, dynamics of explosion. In 1939 - 1941 Khariton together with Zeldovich for the first time perfrom calculation of chain reaction of uranium fission. From the beginning of war of Institut of chemical physics it is evacuated to Kazan where Khariton conducts works on Narkomat`s task of ammunition of the country.
In 1943, practically at the very beginning of works on the nuclear project in the USSR, but after moving “ Laboratories No. 2 “ (future Kurchatov institute) from Kazan to Moscow, Kurchatov attracted to them and Khariton. Since 1946 Khariton is the chief designer and the research supervisor of VNIIEF (Arzamas - 16) in Sarov. Directly it conducted the works which came to the end with creation Soviet nuclear (1949) and hydrogen (1953) bombs. This and the subsequent stages of life and Khariton`s activity are so far in detail described.
Yuli Borisovich Khariton died in December, 1996 - go on 93 - I eat to year of life. It is buried in Moscow on Novodevichy Cemetery.]