To whom did bells and when they did not call call?
In small hand bells to draw attention, called in Ancient Rome at meetings. Large bells began to use in the early Middle Ages to convoke on church service, instead of pipes which were applied to these purposes earlier. Bells extended across all Europe at the time of Charles the Great thanks to his efforts.
Bell affairs of the master were very much appreciated, and casting of a new bell was always a big event. Masters kept secrets of bell production, knew that it is necessary to add to an alloy that the bell called more gently or more loudly. There were bells with names, usually in honor of any Saint. Believed that their ring can drive away diseases and misfortunes. The bell on parish and city church brought together parishioners on service, notified on danger; determined time of day by its ring.
But bells were not only in church. Peasants on corvee were brought together by a ring of a special bell. In the cities quite often shops and city councils had the bells. Special bells of a shame rang execution time. Over time the bell became for the city an embodiment of its independence and independence. At approach of the enemy citizens tried to hide bells from - for them both material, and spiritual value. And during revolts of a bell became messengers of mutiny.
Church bells ceased to call if on the city, the county, the kingdom the father imposed an interdict, i.e. prohibition to make church services. The interdict was usually combined with excommunication. The interdict of the father began to be applied as a way of fight against secular sovereigns, a way to prove that there is nothing in the Christian world above the papal power. It happened when the king refused to obey the father: for example, in the 11th century the father Grigory VII excommunicated the German emperor Henry IV for attempts to counteract decisions of the father; and the Portuguese kings limited the rights of monasteries and churches for lands all the time, than too caused papal anger, and nearly a third of time of government of the Portuguese monarchs passed under an interdict. The father could punish an interdict and the risen city, especially if it belonged to the bishop as it was with Cologne or Porto in which the interdict lasted 60 years. And all this time of a bell were silent so even monks were convoked on service by graggerses.
City bells could stop too. The city lost bells if lost independence. It is widely known, for example, history with export of a bell by Ivan III from Novgorod subdued by it in 1478 there were also other cases. For example, the margrave Dietrich Saxonski removed language of a sentry bell of Leipzig freely to plunder the city in punishment for rebelliousness. The German cities participating in Peasant war of the 16th century were forbidden to ring bells. And sometimes the city itself removed the bells. The example of that is Magdeburg where in 1546, during Hungry war, bells according to the decision of city council were poured in guns. And in this case, but already in other appearance, the bell continued to protect the city.]