How quickly to distinguish science from a pseudo science?
the First obligatory sign of the pseudoscientific theory - globality of a subject . If the science seeks to concretize an object of research and to go deep, then the pseudo science operates only with world concepts. Any there “ To a question of some features of digestion of larvae of a silkworm in the conditions of the increased humidity “. No, only “ Determination of character according to number of the passport “. Here then and it is universal - such polysyllabic and the formalizable concept as the personality, character, mentality etc. is difficult, - without thinking twice, determine by ten figures or letters. The benefit will always be crowd of the enthusiastic ladies screaming: precisely, precisely - everything coincided! Both at me, and at neighbors!
Or “ treatment of an organism by influence of the acoustic waves which passed through vacuum “. Not some there improvement of some functions of one body by long-term treatment, and at once - all organism from all diseases. It is clear to any sixth-grader that acoustic waves in vacuum do not extend, but desire to cure “ in total and at once “ it is so big that it is already unimportant.
In particular, to these such passion of public speaks to protect pseudo-scientists: strictly scientific theories are, as a rule, obscure and are not effective who will understand there what is this constant Level, it is necessary to explain long what shows Avogadro`s number, etc., but the pseudo science promises clear, attractive and fast: treatment at once from everything, definition of the future on one indicator (a horoscope on date of birth), the characteristic of the personality on initials etc. Invitingly and intelligibly!
From article of the academician A. Migdal “ Whether Otlichima truth from lie “:
“ The pseudo-scientist does not like to waste time on trifles, he solves only global problems and whenever possible such which do not leave a stone on a stone from all existing science. As a rule, it never had works of smaller value. He has no doubts, a task only in convincing stupid experts of the obvious correctness. Almost always he promises an enormous, immediate practical exit where it cannot be. “
the Second sign - full rejection of objections . The real science moves slowly, calling everything in question, thinking of objections, attentively considering the cases contradicting primary hypothesis and by that deepens knowledge. The explanation of contradictions will be found, or the hypothesis is recognized as incorrect.
But our bukvosofa and znakoskopa it do not bother. In their soul there is no place to doubts. And those who try to subject to doubts their Great Idea from the outside - they from a half-kick enlist in reactionaries, suppressors of all advanced and light, or, at the worst, in envious persons, in the personal foes who of harm want to put out Ogn. Approximately at such level - all their answers to specific questions...
There is one more category of the people feeding pseudo sciences: credulous listeners. They with delight listen to promises of pseudo-scientists, and sceptics who deprive of their this delight are unpleasant to them. Sceptics suggest to think, appeal to uninteresting “ school “ to science, and at heart even credulous feels: something here not so as he easily trusts also arguments of the skeptic. Really, if in pyramidal constructions meat does not spoil - why producers of refrigerators still were not ruined?. And how it so leaves that at the time of change of days with transition from the Scorpion to the Sagittarius in all maternity hospitals of the world efficient Scorpions at the same time cease to be born, but charming Sagittariuses flock?. All catches and arguments of the skeptic destroy a fine picture of general happiness from new opening - unpleasantly and who is guilty? Of course, skeptic! Why he interferes? It was so interesting!
Defenders of pseudoscientific and pseudoscientific chewing gum willingly remember that they considered as a pseudo science genetics and cybernetics in due time, like to remember Galilee and Giordano Bruno - however absolutely lose sight that in all listed cases science NOT SCIENTIFIC OPPONENTS, but social and POLITICAL smothered: church, or communistic ideology. I think that it becomes consciously - painfully pleasantly to feel Copernicus, and to nail the opponent asking unpleasant questions as the suppressor Novy. Especially, if concrete answer not at all and if is, then it is better not to read it.
The third sign distinguishing science from not - sciences is its basic CHECKABILITY, that is reproducibility of experiment . If the phenomenon is opened and described, then, repeating actions of the scientist and following the exact description, experiment can repeat everyone.
Favourite shout of defenders different “ the torsion fields “ and “ Qi`s energy “ - that here supposedly radio waves are invisible too and are not felt, and once could seem an invention, tell about them to the medieval scientist. For some reason they do not think that WHOEVER built the radio receiver and the transmitter according to descriptions - if everything is made precisely, they ALWAYS turn out, and it is not necessary to be some especially “ radio gifted guru “ the dawned Secret Knowledge etc. There is a strict description - it should be reproduced precisely, and experiment HAS TO TURN OUT, and the effect - is obliged to REPEAT.
In cases of different pseudoscientific predictions and influences of unknown Fields - only the author of the theory or limited number some " can gain all effects, as a rule; mediums “. Moreover, defenders of a pseudo science, as a rule, hostilely react to the offer to repeat, reproduce the phenomenon, or to specify exact conditions of reproduction. Top of this approach is the point of view “ here who TRUSTS in it, at that it turns out and who does not trust - for will not turn out anything “. That is who believes that a zirconium bracelet (kosmodisk etc.) treats everything on light - that good fellow and who does not trust - itself is guilty that did not recover. Conveniently!
The fourth sign - hypotheses scientific, as a rule, have limited action , that is assumed to opening (or to the invention) the effect in any conditions does not work. The simplest “ children`s “ the example - even such superfundamental thing as the law of universal gravitation, for example, says to us that bodies are attracted to the earth and owing to this fact fall. But if to bind a body a string or to substitute a subnose, then it will not fall! There are also a lot more different tricks as to a body not to fall. Or here X-rays - they penetrate bodies, but lead is opaque to them, that is the figure dressed in the leaded overalls is opaque to them. The magnetic field influences some metals, but there is a set of materials which it does not affect.
But in case of a pseudoscientific hypothesis all not so. She acts ALWAYS, and there are no conditions which limit its action. You can twirl it and so and to try to understand where there comes restriction of its action, but the young man pale with the look burning (though to the young man often according to the passport already half a century, we judge not by the passport, and by mind) answers you all questions: she acts!
That is though what, for example, the analysis of character depending on name letters, or from number of the birth certificate. As effect something very fundamental is offered: for example, if in a name there is a letter L, then the owner of a name possesses ability to the exact sciences (an example conditional).
- I checked 500 people, - declares to you bukvosof, - everything coincided! That is all have abilities, just at some they are not developed (!) but they are. Somewhere at heart. Very deeply.
- And all - here I know couple of people with a letter L, and they are absolutely stupid in the exact sciences?
- Means, they have the wrong name! - answers bukvosof. - But my opening is all the same right. And I even already give paid sessions. Who has an incorrect name - advise to change. And thus my theory is absolutely right! I examined thousands of people, and at both all coincided! And at whom did not coincide, they have the wrong name, and I at additional expense will calculate correct. Very much I advise.
Having been dumbfounded from such turn of destiny, you do the last attempt to limit space distribution of the theory of a letter L: Japanese have no
- And here at all in language of a sound of L. No something cannot be told that these people completely all are incapable of the exact sciences?
I here bukvosof applies universal arguments which it keeps on heart always (you watch hands):
- Why you so prejudicedly approach? You are dissatisfied with the life? Here Galilee pursued too and did not trust it! To refute my theory, it is necessary to devote it all life, to study completely all Chinese and Indian philosophy, and you here then? (It, we will notice, devoted any life to nothing too, and the ideas picked up from the entertainment newspaper with crossword puzzles.)
Well and if you are so stale and deaf, as after such convincing arguments you will not believe in its super - the theory, he says the classical phrase which is beaten out by gold letters from it on brain marble. Having turned to the supporters (and them always much) and having wrapped in a toga, he majestically utters:
- Idemte, girls, we will not throw beads.
About beads I advise to remember is extremely convenient argument. In - the first, it is a way to get nasty politely because it the word “ pigs “ did not say, but it is meant, in - the second, it is the quote from the Scripture (here what it formed).
I with proud gloss in a look he pretends that he wants to leave - under enthusiastic squeal of the girls exempted by it from unpleasant feeling that in the theory nevertheless something strongly not so. In the world there is so much unknown! By Idemte to consider letters, to put figures, to divide all this into number of the passport and “ to learn itself “ with a strange force! Invitation “ to learn the future “ (as a rule, these people write so: “ future “ probably the letter Yu somehow promotes a prediction) so invitingly that adherents (and especially adeptka), having darted a glance full of a regret at sceptics, a wide stream rush to the guru.]