Why name “ Saltychikh “ became nominal in Russia?
Why the devout Moscow noblewoman Saltykova became “ tormentor and dushegubitsa “? Neither investigators of that time, nor the modern scientists making her psychological portrait managed to establish it. Could not prove also murder of 138 people of which she was suspected and her henchmen. But even those brutal punishments which the consequence managed to confirm with testimony and the facts were enough much forever to make her name a synonym of pathological cruelty.
Darya Nikolaevna was born in a family of the stolbovy Moscow nobleman consisting related to the famous Russian childbirth. The captain Labe - guards of the Horse regiment Gleb Saltykov, the representative of not less known surname became her husband. But family life was short, and 26 - the summer widow remained one with two sons on hands. Her mother and the grandmother lived in the monastery long ago, and it was necessary to operate estates in the Moscow, Vologda and Kostroma provinces in which there lived about 600 peasants it most.
Soon complaints began to come to official Moscow bodies that the landowner cruelly tortures and kills the domestic women. Extensive related communications of Saltykova and generous gifts to officials allowed “ to drop complaints “ and to transfer complainants to the mistress to punishment. But two peasants, Saveli Martynov and Ermolai Ilyin whose wives it tortured in 1762 were incredibly lucky, they managed to reach St. Petersburg and to make the complaint to the empress Catherine II. Business was set in motion.
The investigation was charged to be held to outdoor advisers of the Moscow Yustits - board to Stepan Volkov and Dmitry Tsitsianov, but under control of the Senate and at periodic reports personally to the empress, as allowed to finish it. It should be noted conscientiousness rare for those times and diligence of investigators which had to face rigid counteraction of the Moscow officials.
Studying of the accounts books withdrawn from Saltykova and interrogations of domestics allowed to make the list of 138 people in whose death the bytpovinna the landowner could (50 people were registered “ died of diseases “ 72 - “ it is unknown were absent “ 16 - were registered “ left to the husband “ or “ gone to races “). The destiny of these people should be studied laboriously.
Investigators were lucky, thanks to routine Moscow bureaucracy in archives of office of the Moscow civil governor, the Detective order, the Moscow politseymeyster more than 20 documents remained (complaints of serfs to the landowner, inspection certificates of bodies, etc.) which were filed. Destiny of complainants it was deplorable. The part of them was banished by Saltykova to Siberia on a hard labor (landowners at that time had such rights), others were cruelly bits and are sent to distant estates (these still were lucky) or contained in the internal torture chambers equipped in the estate Troitsk situated near Moscow, let out these only in the period of a consequence.
Because remaining on Saltykov`s freedom in every possible way interfered with carrying out a consequence, Volkov prepared addressed to the empress the application on discharge of the landowner from management of the property and money, her capture into custody and permission to her interrogations under torture. And also asked to authorize carrying out general searches and interrogations in Saltykova`s estates and in the Moscow quarter on Sretenka where the house of the defendant is located. All requests, except permission of tortures, were satisfied.
The consequence entered a new stage. In February, 1764 Saltykov it was taken “ under guard “. Seeing gravity of intentions of the power, witnesses became razgovorchivy, and counteraction from the Moscow officials decreased. Business began to be filled with the concrete facts. Saltykova`s neighbors and priests of nearby churches, Vvedenskaya and Ioann Belogradsky (it was possible to bury the person only with the assistance of the priest), could report concrete dates and names of the killed that was confirmed also at interrogations of a domestics. Scales of interrogations seem improbable for those times. In Moscow, situated near Moscow Troitsk and the villages adjoining to it interrogated more than 430 people.
Very important were testimonies of priests who were invited to profess dying and could confirm that cruel tortures became the reason of a number of death. There were several cases when the Moscow priests refused to bury women with traces of murder and demanded presentation of bodies of police for obtaining official permissions to burial. In these cases of the killed brought in Troitsk where their funeral was assigned to the head and the local priest. But even in subject to Saltykova Troitsk happened “ failures “.
In July, 1762 in Troitsk brought still living Fekla Gerasimova who should have been buried. According to testimonies of the head Ivan Mikhaylov “ and hair at it were torn out, both the head is broken, and the back decayed “. Even the head who was earlier implicitly fulfilling requirements of the landowner did not sustain. It carried a body of the woman who died at it back to Moscow in office of the Moscow civil governor. Officials were forced to call the doctor and to report in police. The doctor Fedor Smirnov examining a body in writing recorded numerous injuries which could become a cause of death. The detective police hushed up business, sent a body back in Troitsk for burial, but kept the act signed by Smirnov.
Similar acts in police appeared a little. In 1757 Saltykova killed to death pregnant Anisya Grigorieva. As she died without participle, the invited priest refused to bury a body without official permission. In police the doctor Nikolay Telezhkin testified existence on a body of numerous open wounds and traces of a beating, and also putrefactive changes of skin in the field of wounds that demonstrated long tortures of died. Police officers recorded also words of the husband killed that she died from the landowner`s beating. These words cost it life, upon return from police it was cruelly beaten and banished to the distant estate where soon died.
All Saltykova`s fault in death of 38 people was during the investigation proved, in death of 26 more people it was “ it is left in suspicion “ as it was not succeeded to collect authentic proofs. The facts of cruel tortures and a beating which victims survived were recorded. And also her guilt in " is ascertained; zloumyshleniya on life of the captain Tyutchev “. Saltykova`s helpers appointed for punishment over the lover who threw it were afraid to kill the officer and could warn him about the preparing attempt.
The decision of the empress to Saltykov deprived of the nobility and sentenced to life imprisonment in underground prison without light and human communication. Its property was transferred to sons, with guardianship to their majority. The priest Petrov from Troitsk and two helpers of the landowner were bits a whip, kleymena also are banished to Siberia on a hard labor. From the Moscow officials, several years indulging Saltykova`s crimes nobody suffered.
Till 1779 Saltykov contained in Ivanovskoye convent in specially constructed underground chamber, and then to the death which followed on November 27, 1801 in a stone extension to the temple in which there was a barred window. Muscovites specially visited the monastery in hope through lattices to see well-known to Saltychikh.
Darya Saltykova did not regret the crimes.]