Rus Articles Journal

Who invented radio?

U us in the country consider that Alexander Popov, in the West - that Guglielmo Marconi.

A that such radio? And what such invention? The answer also depends on it. Let`s try to understand.

In 1845 Michael Faraday entered concept of the electromagnetic field. According to Albert Einstein, the idea of the field was the most important discovery since the time of Isaac Newton. Before the space was considered filled with bodies and charges through which influence was transmitted. And the field is an emptiness through which interaction can be carried out too.

In 1865 James Maxwell created the theory of the electromagnetic field where he expressed all main regularities of this phenomenon. The main conclusion of the theory - free distribution of electromagnetic radiation in space with velocity of light.

In 1887 Heinrich Gerts created a real design of the generator and resonator of electromagnetic oscillations. In 1888 by means of these devices experimentally proved existence of the electromagnetic waves extending in free space with velocity of light. Those - predicted by Faraday and described by Maxwell.

If radio - distribution of electromagnetic waves, then these three opened it. If the invention - the concrete device, then it was created by Gerts. Another thing is that its devices worked at distance only of several meters from each other, and in the receiver it was necessary to observe only very weak spark in the dark. But improvement of devices is a trick. And new inventions, but already concrete technical devices. Whether it is possible to consider the invention of cellular communication as the invention of radio? Or this invention of the concrete phone using already known radio communication?

The early death of Gerts in 1894 (at the age of 37 years) did not allow this ingenious scientist, the experimenter, the engineer to continue improvement of the devices created by it. And what was made at this time by Popov and Marconi between whom inflamed and still there is a dispute on a priority to the invention in 1895 - 1896 of radio?

In the technical plan for increase in distances both Popov, and Marconi added the antenna and grounding to Gerts`s devices. For more accurate registration of a signal both added to Gerts`s receiver a coherer - the glass tube filled with metal powder. The coherer was invented in 1887 by the French physicist Eduard Branli, and in 1893 Englishman Oliver Lodge found out that powder in a tube sharply changes resistance in the presence of Gerts`s waves. Practical applications of a coherer of Lodge did not interest, and Popov and Marconi used it for inclusion of a call, instead of a hardly noticeable spark at Gerts.

So Popov and Marconi in the technical plan made approximately same. Who earlier - it is confused still. On the one hand, our day of radio it is considered on May 7, 1895 when Popov at a meeting of physical office of the Russian physicist - chemical society showed the grozootmetchik - actually Gerts`s receiver with the antenna and a coherer. It showed transfer of a radio signal from the transmitter to the receiver in the same place only on March 24, 1896, having transferred the radiogramm from two words: Heinrich Gerts . And Marconi not only made by this time similar experiments with the similar equipment, but also submitted the patent application.

About their dispute continuing 110 years many books are written, there are many websites on the Internet. Each author adduces a set of arguments in favor of the version. Let`s not go to this mat and to spoil the health. Let`s consider as day of radio on December 24, 1906 when professor Redzhinald Fessenden suited the broadcast of a voice first in the history and music from the own house in Brent Rock, the State of Massachusetts. In total - under the word Radio we got used to understand transfer of sounds, but not Morse alphabets.]