Why contemporaries called Caesar Kyui the general from music?
Caesar Antonovich Kyui are the person of versatile talents who left a noticeable mark both in music and in military fortification, and in public life of Russia of the end of XIX - the beginnings of the XX centuries.
The son of the French officer wounded in fight near Smolensk and who remained in Russia and the Lithuanian noblewoman, he was born 6 on January (18), 1835 in Vilno. The boy`s father teaching French in a gymnasium was a person musically gifted, played a piano and body, composed music. Its musical addictions were transferred younger of five children, named at the birth Caesar - Veniamin.
The first lessons of playing a piano the boy received houses at the father and elder sister. Then diligently was engaged with private teachers. In 14 years Caesar composed the first musical play - a mazourka. The composition of music carried away it, followed fondly - imitative nocturnes, romances, overtures. Musical notations of his compositions showed to Stanislav Monyushko living in Vilno. The talented Polish composer estimated talent of the young colleague and began to be engaged free of charge with it. A little more than half a year Caesar studied at it, but these lessons he remembered all life.
Unfortunately, studies music had to be interrupted, there came time to decide on future profession. In 1851 Caesar by a father`s advice came to the Main engineering school in St. Petersburg. In the years of study for serious occupation by music of time did not remain. But the capital with its rich cultural traditions, undoubtedly, gave to future composer much.
Voyenno - engineering the young man comprehended diligently, upon termination of in 1855 school the young officer came to the Nikolaev Voyenno - engineering academy. In 1857 as one of the best graduates, was made in lieutenants and it is left in academy the tutor on topography. And in two years became the teacher of fortification to which devoted all the subsequent military life.
The person of enormous working capacity, he on everything found time. Combined pedagogical activity of Kyui with serious occupation by music. According to him, a great influence on it as on the composer, the friendship with M. A. Balakirev, acquaintance to whom took place in 1856, rendered. Balakirev not only became his mentor, but also entered on Wednesday professional musicians, many of which, as well as Kyui, were people military. Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodin, Dargomyzhsky became his close friends and colleagues on composer work. On Dargomyzhsky`s schoolgirl, the singer M. R. Bamberg, in 1858 Kyui married. He devoted it an orchestral scherzo for a piano in 4 hands. Execution of this scherzo in a symphony concert of Imperial Russian musical society became on December 14, 1859 the first public execution of work of the composer Kyui.
From now on its works began to be executed not only in Russia, but also abroad. Kyui was the prolific author. Operas " were written to them; Caucasian Captive “ “ Son of " Tangerine; “ William Ratklif “ “ Angelo “ “ Saratsin “ “ Fiddle while Rome burns “ “ Captain`s Daughter “. All Kyui wrote 14 operas, from them four for children: “ Snow Athlete “ “ Little Red Riding Hood “ “ Puss in Boots “ “ Ivan the Fool “. It should be noted that the tremendous success of its opera was not made though many of them were executed on the leading Russian opera stage. As the best of the operas created by it are considered “ William Ratklif “ and “ Angelo “ which were repeatedly staged Mariinsky and Big theaters. According to agonal will of Dargomyzhsky, Kyui wrote the end 1 - y scenes in “ Stone State standard specification “ and after Mussorgsky`s death added the opera “ Sorochynsk fair “.
Musicologists consider that is the fullest as the composer Kyui revealed in small chamber works, first of all, in romances which he created more than 400. Its romances differ in sincerity, lyricism, genuine depth of feelings. And today it is possible to hear performed by the best Russian vocalists its romances written on Pushkin, Lermontov, Maykov, Mickiewicz, Nekrasov`s fine verses.
It should be noted that for vocal execution it created about 70 choruses and 2 cantatas. Wrote many interesting works of Kyui to areas of instrumental music - it is suites, a scherzo, tarantella, 3 string quartets, 25 piano preludes, it is a lot of plays for a violin and for a violoncello.
Contemporaries well knew Caesar Kyui and as musical critic. He for many years was a constant employee “ Sankt - the St. Petersburg Sheets “ where lit musical life of Russia. Its articles and reviews were published in such editions as “ Musical review “ “ Actor “ “ Week “ “ News “ both many other domestic and foreign newspapers and magazines. In Paris there was its book “ Music in Russia “ made the contribution to distribution of the Russian music in Europe. It is natural that it reflected musical views and an ideological platform of a balakirevsky circle in the articles - well-known “ The Five “ which member he for many years was.
Vigorous composer activity did not prevent Kyui to progress successfully on an office ladder. He became professor recognized by authority on fortification, of its textbooks many generations of the Russian officers studied. Its works and articles on fortification translated the abroad, and the known foreign fortifikator corresponded with it, discussing novelties voyenno - engineering.
With Russko`s beginning - the Turkish war of 1877 - 78 Kyui at the request of the general Skobelev left in field army, participated in fortification strengthening of the Russian positions. At appointment in 1880 as the commander Akhal - Tekinsky military expedition, the general Skobelev repeatedly consulted on Kyui concerning engineering support of fights in the desert and the organization of lines of communication. After a successful completion of operation he wrote Kyui: “ I did not forget remote when I was your bad pupil, did not forget positions near Constantinople, at last, the main thing, did not forget that valuable advice which substantially achieved our last success under Geok - to Tepa “.
As recognition of merits of Kyui production it in a rank the engineer - the general (there corresponds the general - to the colonel) and the invitation for lecturing on fortification served the successor of a throne (future emperor Nicholas II) and grand dukes in the military sphere.
In all spheres of the activity Caesar Kyui became the recognized authority, he was elected the member by many Russian and foreign musical societies and scientific academies. Even after revolution he continued to remain professor of three military academies. However, the service of the new power for it proceeded absolutely not for long.
Caesar Antonovich Kyui in Petrograd died on March 26, 1918. He was buried on the Tikhvin cemetery (a modern Necropolis of masters of the arts).]