Rus Articles Journal

How Nicolaus Copernicus degraded Earth to the ordinary planet?

on February 19, 1473, 535 years ago in the Polish town of Toruni the ingenious reformer of natural sciences, the founder of new astronomy Nicolaus Copernicus was born. Studied at the Krakow university (1491 - 1495) where studied mathematics, medicine and divinity. Trained at universities of Italy and Germany. In 1503 came back to Poland and lodged in the town of Frombrok, in one of church towers where it was engaged in astronomical supervision nearly thirty years.

At the time of Copernicus was considered that the center of the world is Earth, and around it the Sun, planets and stars move. Such system of the world was called geocentric, from the Greek word gay - Earth. But nobody could explain why the Sun moves around Earth on the correct arch, and a way of planets difficult as though confused.

Copernicus tried to improve the geocentric system of the world offered by Ptolemaeus in Almageste its system of the rotating crystal spheres. It was based on supervision and calculations by method of consecutive approximations. For creation of system of Ptolemaeus material of thousand-year astronomical supervision was used. Attempts of its specification became earlier, but Copernicus the first paid attention to similarity of the main epicycles (trajectories) of planets and tried to find to it an explanation. If in the center of system to put the Sun, and planets to force to rotate around it, then similarity of epicycles easily spoke.

Copernicus`s calculations were very difficult - he transferred the famous astronomical data to other system of coordinates. And itself made a set of astronomical observations. The parallactical tool was the most known device which Copernicus used trikvetrum. The second device used by Copernicus for definition of a tilt angle of an ecliptic, goroskopiya - a sundial, a kind of a quadrant. At the same time Copernicus for the present kept idea of the final Universe, the limited sphere of fixed stars. Only nearly hundred years later Giordano Bruno assumed plurality of the star worlds.

Its book " became result of almost thirty years` work; About the address of heavenly spheres published in Nuremberg in 1543, shortly before Copernicus`s death. It consists of six parts: 1) About sphericity of the world and Earth, and also about rules of the solution of rectangular and spherical triangles; 2) Fundamentals of spherical astronomy and the rule of calculation of visible provisions of stars and planets on the heavenly arch; 3) About a precession or forestalling of equinoxes and the popyatny movement of the line of crossing of the equator with an ecliptic; 4) About the Moon; 5) About other planets; 6) About the reasons of change of latitude of planets.

Originally the church did not pay attention to philosophical consequences of the possibility of statement of Earth in one row with other planets. And only after Giordano Bruno`s works and practical confirmation of heliocentric system by Galileo Galilei by means of the telescope of the book of all three invented by him in 1616 were declared by heresy and are forbidden.

Copernicus died on May 24, 1543 in the city of Fromborka where he lived, and worked the last 40 years of the life.]