What was opened by Galileo Galilei?
are on February 15, 2008 444 years since the birth of one of founders of modern exact natural sciences, the outstanding Italian physicist Galileo Galilei. From it the physics as science originates.
But at first he wanted to devote the life to medicine, having entered in 1581 the Pisa university. But, having read Archimedes and Euclid`s works, left university and four years independently went in for mathematics. Already in 1582, watching pendulums, Galilei opened the law of an isochronism - independence of the period of fluctuations of a pendulum of scope of fluctuations and mass of freight - and put forward idea of application of pendulums in hours. Having applied mathematics not only to mechanics, but also to a hydrostatics, invented hydrostatic scales which found application when weighing precious metals and their alloys in 1586.
In the next 20 years he experimentally and theoretically establishes the main beginnings of mechanics. First of all, it is the principle of relativity for rectilinear and uniform motion and the principle of constancy of acceleration by gravity. The first principle led later Newton to concept of an inertial reference system, and the second - to concept of inert weight. And Einstein, having extended the principle of relativity of Galilei to all physical processes (in particular on light), and interpreting its second principle as equivalence of forces of inertia and inclination, created the general theory of relativity.
In 1609 Galilei creates the first telescope and begins systematic astronomical supervision. It opens mountains on the Moon, four satellites of Jupiter.
Finds out that the Milky Way consists of a set of stars. Opens a spot on the sun and its rotation, phases at Venus. These astronomical opening bring to Galilei and his telescope such wide popularity that he even arranges production of telescopes. And in 1610 - 14 years, combining and selecting distance between lenses, invents a microscope. These two devices in the next centuries served as the powerful tool of scientific researches.
And Galilei investigated the nature of light, color, dealt with issues of physical optics.
Formulated idea of an extremity of speed of distribution of light, and made experiments by its definition.
Astronomical opening of Galilei were generalized by it in the treatise " which appeared in 1632; Dialogue about two major systems of the world “ a practical way validated Copernicus`s doctrine about heliocentric system of the world. This book enraged churchmen. Inquisition imposed a ban on the book, and Galilei in 1633 forced to renounce the views and excommunicated. In the same church where in 1600 Giordano Bruno who did not renounce the views was sentenced to burning, Galilei, being kneeling, said the text of renunciation offered it.
Galileo Galilei on January 8, 1642 at the age of 78 years died. It is buried without honors and a gravestone. In 1737, in 95 years its ashes were transferred to Florence, to church Santa - Croce. And in 1992, only in 350 years after Galilei`s death, the Pope John Paul II after work of the special commission recognized heliocentric system of the world and dismissed charges from the great scientist.]