Rus Articles Journal

What White Guard became the president of Academy of Sciences of the USSR?

He was born on February 13, 1903 in the small town Staring the Kiev province. His father was the outdoor adviser, the magistrate of Tarashchansky court. Mother, half the Swede, half the German, devoted the life to the house and children. His childhood passed in Kiev where it ended a gymnasium in 1919. There was a Civil war. The neighbor, the white officer, appealed to patriotic feelings.

And Anatoly Petrovich Alexandrov, future winner of the Lenin award and three times Hera of Socialist Work, entered White army. He bravely battled until the end of 1920, reached the Crimea, witnessed flight of vrangelevets. Did not manage to get on the ship sailing to Turkey it was taken prisoner. It was sentenced to execution, but by miracle escaped. For obvious reasons told about it only at the end of life. Spent three years at the brother in Maryanovka who became famous for the singer I. S. Kozlowski who was born there.

And only in 1924 Alexandrov comes back to Kiev and goes to the university. In parallel teaches physics at school and begins to be engaged in scientific work at the Kiev x-ray institute. Researches properties and features of a diffusion volume charge in dielectrics. The academician A. F. Ioffe who invited him in Leningrad physics - technical institute of Academy of Sciences of the USSR incidentally paid attention to Alexandrov`s works.

Already in the first scientific works of Alexandrov at the beginning of 30 - x the years devoted to researches of electric breakdown the brilliant talent of the experimenter and ability to understand deeply the difficult physical phenomena were shown. He defends the master`s thesis, heads department of electric and mechanical properties of polymeric materials.

About 1936 of Alexandrov and the group of employees of LFTI run by it began to work on antimine protection of the ships. By the beginning of war the results which allowed to reduce sharply losses of fleet were received. In demagnetization of the ships in 1941 - 1942 Kurchatov was the deputy of Alexandrov. And at this time LFTI was evacuated to Kazan. But when by the resolution of the State committee of defense in one of buildings of the Kazan university in August, 1942 for development of an atomic bomb it will be organized confidential Laboratory No. 2 (future Kurchatov institute), Alexandrov becomes Kurchatov`s deputy there.

All further life of Alexandrov is connected with a nuclear problem. Efforts of Alexandrov and his colleagues succeeded to solve a problem of receiving from plutonium uranium in the scales necessary for production of bombs and peace purposes. If Blokhintsev directed development of the project and construction by the nuclear power plant started in 1954, then Alexandrov created and put into operation in 1958 the first-ever nuclear submarine.

In 1960 Alexandrov becomes the director of institute to whom appropriate a name of Kurchatov. In 1975 Alexandrov becomes after voluntary retirement Keldysha Prezidentom of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. This period of his life and activity is widely known.

In 1986 after the Chernobyl accident Anatoly Petrovich as in due time Keldysh, left a post of the president of Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

Thus, Alexandrov witnessed also the direct participant of all main events which are taking place in our country in the XX century. Anatoly Petrovich Alexandrov died on February 2, 1994.]