What was Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev fond of?
are on February 8, 2008 174 years since the birth of Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev. All know that it opened the Periodic Table.
Many remember that it theoretically and practically proved the optimum fortress of vodka. And only about 9% from its more than 500 scientific works are devoted to chemistry. And how many at this ingenious person was hobbies, except science!
Mendeleyev conducted and published basic researches in chemistry, chemical technology, pedagogics, physics, mineralogy, metrology, aeronautics, meteorology, agriculture, economy. All its works were closely connected with needs of development of productive forces for Russia.
Having ended a gymnasium in Tobolsk in 1849, on a territorial sign Mendeleyev could go to in Russia only the Kazan university. But he did not become N. N. Zinin`s pupil. As the Moscow and St. Petersburg universities for it was are closed, he entered the St. Petersburg teacher training college on office of natural sciences of the physicist - mathematical faculty. Also did not lose. In it outstanding scientists of that time - M. V. Ostrogradsky (mathematics), E. H. Lenz (physics), A. N. Savich (astronomy), A. A. Voskresensky (chemistry), M. S. Kutorga (mineralogy), F. I. Ruprecht (botany), F. F. Brandt (zoology) taught.
Still the student in 1854 Dmitry Ivanovich conducts researches and writes the article “ About isomorphism “ where established the relations between a crystal form and a chemical composition of connections, and also dependence of properties of elements on the size of their nuclear volumes. In 1856 defends the dissertation “ About specific volumes “ on degree of the master of chemistry and physics. At this time writes about enantolovosernisty acid and about distinction of reactions of replacement, connection and decomposition.
In 1859 Mendeleyev was sent abroad. In Heidelberg was engaged in a capillarity of liquids. Opened in 1860 “ temperature of absolute boiling of " liquids; or critical temperature. Having returned, in 1861 publishes the first Russian textbook “ Organic chemistry “. In 1865 - 1887 created the hydrate theory of solutions. Developed ideas about existence of connections of variable structure. In 1865 bought Boblovo`s manor where conducted researches on agrochemistry and agriculture. In 1868 together with Zinin and other scientists became the founder of the Russian physicist - chemical society.
In 1869 Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev makes the greatest discovery in the history of chemistry - creates the well-known periodic system of elements. In 1871 there is its book “ Fundamentals of chemistry “ - first harmonous statement of inorganic chemistry. Mendeleyev worked on new editions of this work until the end of life.
In 1871 - 1875 Mendeleyev studies properties of elasticity and expansion of gases, investigates oil hydrocarbons and questions of an origin of oil what he writes several works about. Visits the Caucasus. In 1876 goes to America, to Pennsylvania, to examine the American oil fields. Mendeleyev`s works in respect of studying of oil production were of great importance for the oil industry which is promptly developing in Russia. The research " became result of one of fashionable then hobbies; About spiritism “.
Since 1880 he began to be interested in art, especially Russian, collects art collections, and in 1894 is elected the full member of Imperial academy of Arts. His portrait is drawn by Repin. With 1891 Mendeleyev becomes the chemist`s editor - technical and fabrichno - factory department of the Encyclopaedic dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron and writes many of articles. As a hobby Dmitry Ivanovich did suitcases and to himself sewed clothes. Mendeleyev participated also in design of the first Russian " ice breaker; Yermak “.
In 1887 Mendeleyev independently rises in the balloon for supervision of a solar eclipse. Polet was unprecedented and became known around the world. The French Academy of meteorological aeronautics awarded to Mendeleyev the diploma “ For the shown courage at you weed for supervision of a solar eclipse “. In 1888 he on the instructions of the government studied the reasons of crisis of coal industry in Donetsk region. Its works “ Letters on " plants; “ Sensible tariff “ contained important economic offers.
In 1890 - 1895 was a consultant Scientifically - technical laboratory of the Sea ministry. In 1892 organized production of the smokeless gunpowder invented by it.
B Mendeleyev is appointed 1892 by the scientist - the keeper of Depot of model weights and scales. Since 1893 on its initiative it becomes the Main Board of Weights and Measures. Now it is all-union scientific research institute of metrology of D. I. Mendeleyev. As a result in 1899 in Russia the new law on measures and scales was entered that promoted development of the industry.
“ I also am surprised, - Mendeleyev wrote at the end of life, - what I only did not delyvat on the life. Also it is made, I think, is not bad “. He was a member of almost all academies and the honorary member more than 100 scientific societies.
Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev died on February 2, 1907. It is buried on “ Literatorsky planked footway “ Volkova of a cemetery in St. Petersburg.]