What awards of St. George in Russia noted military feats? Part second
Rewarding with St. Georgy`s award of the second degree always served as an indicator of recognition of skill of a military leader. Such award outstanding Russian military leaders F. F. Ushakov, P. I. Bagration, M. I. Platov, P. P. Konovnitsyn, A. I. Osterman - Thick, N. N. Rayevsky, A. P. Yermolov, I. V. Gurko, M. D. Skobelev deserved in fights. The general from an infanteriya N. N. Yudenich ordering the Caucasian front in World War I became the last gentleman of an award of the second degree.
St. Georgy`s awards of the third degree were awarded the glorified generals I. A. Hannibal, I. M. de Ribas, Ya. P. Kulnev (his Napoleon called one of the best cavalry officers), P. S. Kaysarov, M. I. Dragomirov, A. A. Brusilov.
Thousands of generals and officers of the Russian army became gentlemen of St. George of an award of the fourth degree. It is just impossible to list surnames even of the most known of them in short article. It and the poet - the guerrilla D. V. Davydov, and the famous artist - the painter of battle-pieces V. V. Vereshchagin, both the Decembrist S. G. Volkonsky, and the outstanding scientist and the naval commander admiral S. O. Makarov. In 1904 there was an unprecedented case when all officers participating in fight were presented to St. Georgy`s award of the fourth degree. It happened after the well-known fight of the ships “ Varangian “ and “ Korean “ with an enemy squadron at Chemulpo on January 27. Even ship priest “ Varangian “ M. Rudnev received a gold naperstny cross on a St.George`s Ribbon (that since 1790 was a fighting distinction).
Till 1855 the fourth degree awarded the order to officers for a period of service of 25 years in armies or participation in 18 campaigns on fleet. But in this case the corresponding inscription was located on beams of a medal sign.
In the years of World War I began to award the order to St. Georgy and posthumously. One of the first, “ death imprinted a feat “ as it was written in orders on posthumous rewardings, there was a pilot P. N. Nesterov who made the first-ever air ram.
After February revolution it was authorized to award the order to St. Georgy of the lower ranks which assumed in a course of action of a duty of officers and showed at the same time bravery. At the same time officers according to the solution of meeting of the lower ranks of division could be awarded for feats with a soldier`s St George`s Cross. In these cases on a tape of an award or the St George`s Cross the metal laurel branch was added. Such awards in the army environment were highly appreciated especially.
There was in the Russian army one more very prestigious award for officers and generals for feats in the battlefield which entered her owners into a rank of gentlemen of St. George. It is a gold St. George`s Weapon.
For rewarding of the lower ranks in Russia since 1807 there was a Distinction of the Military Order of Saint George - the well-known soldier`s St George`s Cross. He repeated a form of a sign of an award of St. Georgy, but was made of silver. Were listed in the statute of the Distinction concrete “ military feats which can grant the right for such difference “.
The first were awarded soldier`s Georgy an unter - the officer of the Kavalergardsky regiment E. I. Mityukhin, an unter - the officer of the Pskov dragoon regiment V. Mikhaylov and the private of the Kavalergardsky regiment K. Ovcharenko. They were handed distinctions of the Military award at numbers 1, 2, 3. Nadezhda of Durov - well-known the cavalryman - the maiden became the first woman awarded the Distinction of the Military award. The cross behind number 6723 was handed to it for rescue in fight of the officer.
Originally the Distinction of the Military award had no degrees, and in 1856 was divided into four degrees: the first and second - gold crosses, the third and fourth - silver.
In 1913 the new statute was approved, and the Distinction of the Military award began to be called the St George`s Cross officially.
Rewarding with the St George`s Cross gave considerable privileges: increase of monetary pay, pension on a transfer to the reserve, release from corporal punishments, assignment of the next military rank to the subensign etc. of
the St George`s Cross rushed also after assignment of an officer rank. Decembrists M. M. Muravyev - the Apostle and I. D. Yakushkin rejoiced on the uniforms the modest soldier`s St George`s Crosses received for Borodino. On four St George`s Crosses in the years of World War I the famous commanders I. V. Tyulenev and V. I. Chapayev deserved. Outstanding Soviet military leaders G. K. Zhukov, K. K. Rokossovsky, R. Ya. Malinovsky were gentlemen of St. George. Full Cavalier of St. George Don Cossack K. I. Nedorubov for feats in days of the Great Patriotic War was awarded ranks of the Hero of the Soviet Union.
In the first half of the 19th century for rewarding of the lower ranks for military feats the medal " was founded; For bravery “ on a St.George`s Ribbon. Since 1878 the medal was divided into four degrees. The first and second - gold, the third and fourth - silver.
In 1913 the medal “ For bravery “ it was ranked as awards of St. George. From now on full “ Bow Of St. George “ began to consist of four St George`s Crosses and four medals " Of St. George; For bravery “. It was extremely difficult to deserve a full bow of St. George. It was an indicator of enormous courage, military skill and valor of the winner. In World War I the full bow of awards of St. George deserved S. M. Budenny.
Medal “ For bravery “ also civilians, but only for courage in a wartime could be awarded. So, in World War I of the first the war decoration in the north of Russia in Belomorye was received by the daughter of the lighthouse keeper M. Bagrentsev. And was awarded at this time only twelve years.
There were in the Russian army also collective awards with a name of Saint Georgy which for outstanding fighting differences complained to military units and the ships, these are banners of St. George, standards, fodder flags and pennants, silver pipes of St. George and alarm horns.
After October events of 1917 awards and all distinctions were cancelled, Kapitul existing at the Ministry of the imperial yard of the Russian awards is abolished. But nice fighting traditions of ancestors were not buried in oblivion. There passed years and awards Of St. George revived. In 1943 the soldier`s award of Glory of three degrees which statute reminds the provision on the St George`s Cross was founded, and the medal is worn on it is black - an orange St.George`s Ribbon. On the same tape veterans wear the medal “ For a victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 - 1945 “. St.George`s Ribbons decorate peakless caps of seamen from the Guards fighting ships. And today nice awards of the Fatherland - the Order of Saint George and the St George`s Cross returned to prize system of Russia.]