For what differences in Russia awarded with the weapon?
the Weapon were always considered as one of the most honorary rewards for the military personnel. In the Russian army of rewarding with the weapon only officers, generals and admirals who were traditionally handed a cold weapon - swords, sabers, broadswords or dirks received.
In March, 1710 thirteen-thousand group of infantry and a cavalry under command the general - the admiral Fedor Apraksin, having overcome 130 kilometers on the Baltic ice, Vyborg besieged strong fortress. Skillfully combining actions of land forces and the suitable fleet, Apraksin forced garrison of fortress to capitulate. Pyotr highly appreciated merits of the commander and awarded him with the gold sword decorated with diamonds.
The following rewarding with a cold weapon happened in ten years. At the end of June, 1720 at the island Grengam the commander of the Russian rowing squadron Mikhail Golitsyn broke the Swedish squadron and took four frigates. In commemoration of this victory the medal with a symbolical inscription was rapped out: “ Diligence and bravery surpass force “. And Golitsyn “ for its military work and the kind " team; the tsar welcomed a sword with diamonds.
Awarded with originally gold weapon only generals. In the 18th century many outstanding Russian military leaders received the swords decorated with diamonds or diamonds. In 1740 after a successful completion russko - the Turkish war awarded with them the top military commander in the Crimea and Bessarabia the general - the field marshal Hristofor Minikh and the commander of the Don army the general - the field marshal Pyotr Lassi. Among granted by swords with diamonds for progress in russko - the Swedish war of 1741 - 43 the famous military leaders Yakov Keith, Fedor Shtofeln, Pyotr Saltykov, Andriy de Brilii, Vasily Lopukhin.
In 1762 already the second gold sword was received by the commander-in-chief in war with Prussia the general - the field marshal Pyotr Saltykov. In 1774. the next war with Turkey came to the end with signing Kuchuk - the Kaynardzhiysky world which fixed an exit of Russia to the Black Sea. For this success swords with diamonds awarded eleven military leaders, including the general - field marshals Pyotr Rumyantsev, Alexander Golitsyn, Pyotr Panin, Grigory Potemkin, the general - lieutenants Alexander Suvorov and Alexander Prozorovsky.
At the end of the 18th century began to award with the gold weapon also officers. In 1788 capture of Ochakovo was marked by rewarding of eight generals with the swords decorated with diamonds, and 27 officers received gold swords with an inscription on a blade “ For the courage rendered in battle on the estuary Ochakov “. It was the first and, perhaps, the only case when officers received an award weapon with a vast inscription. Same year at the island Gogland 14 naval officers received gold swords with the inscription " for a victory over the Swedish squadron; For bravery “.
Informal division of types of an award weapon begins with this period.
For generals - the weapon with diamonds, diamonds, laurel wreaths (in various combinations) and the inscription “ For bravery “ or about the merits which were the cause for rewarding.
For officers - the gold weapon with the inscription “ For bravery “.
The gold weapon reckoned with diamonds (diamonds) and a laurel wreath as the highest degree. Only the highest military leaders received it. So, the general - the field marshal Kutuzov in 1812 received a gold sword with diamonds and a laurel wreath from emeralds. The general is the field marshal Barclay - - Tolly for battle at Briyenna - a gold sword with an inscription: “ For January 20, 1814 “ decorated with monasteries from diamonds.
Sometimes inscriptions in detail reflected merits of awarded in the gold weapon. So, the gold sword the general - the major Ivan Durnovo is stored in the State Historical Museum. On the outer forward side of a cup its metals the inscription is engraved: “ It is received for difference at deduction by five shelves of the city of Suasson on February 21 of 814 g. At the direction on it two cases French under team of the general Marmont. Battle continued 34 hours “.
The gold weapon externally practically did not differ from the usual, consisting on arms swords, sabers, dirks, broadswords and checkers, only had a hilt (to a metal and a handle with a head) from gold. Needy officers preferred to receive not specially manufactured gold weapon, and money relying on its production. Having ordered the weapon with a gilded hilt or only a gilded hilt to already available blade, they kept considerable part of the released sum. And the sum, It should be noted, was not small, it is confirmed by the curious document. In 1795 to Catherine II the application of seconds - the major Pustovalov about that it was given out " arrived; gold sword which from Eya of Imperial Majesty is appointed to the late my brother “ killed near Krakow in 1794 and a sword to receive to not in time. The empress disposed to give to the applicant not a sword, but 600 rubles which were released on its production.
Since 1855 the gold arms began to be carried with the thong from the St.George`s Ribbon, and in 1913 it was officially called “ Georgiyevsky “ and on it began to fix a small cross of St. George.
Rewarding with the gold weapon was considered as very honorary officer reward and was made, once. But, having become the general, the serviceman could receive some more types of the gold weapon. So, the colonel of horse artillery Alexey Nikitin in 1812 was awarded by a gold sword with the inscription “ For bravery “. In 1813 - 14 years, being already the general, he was twice awarded with gold swords with diamonds and diamonds.
Except gold in Russia awarded also with the anninsky weapon which was lower under the statute. In 1735 shlezvig - the golshtinsky duke Karl Friedrich in memory of the wife Anna, Peter I`s daughter, founded the Order of St. Anna. In Russia it began to award the order since 1742 when to St. Petersburg arrived shlezvig - the golshtinsky crown prince Pyotr - Ulrich, future emperor Peter III. In 1797 Paul I officially entered this award into system of the Russian awards. The award originally had three degrees, and since 1815. The award of younger degree - a red cross on the gold field in a red circle with a diameter of 2,5 cm rushed on a hilt of a cold weapon. In army this award was playfully called “ cranberry “. Since 1828 if this award is received for courage in fight, on a hilt of the anninsky weapon placed the inscription “ For bravery “. Since 1855 to the anninsky weapon the thong of color of a medal tape relied.
If the officer was awarded with both the gold, and anninsky weapon, then on the weapon all put signs and inscriptions fastened, but at the thong of St. George.
The tradition of rewarding with a cold weapon remained also in modern Russia, even the special resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation " is accepted; About rewarding with the weapon of citizens of the Russian Federation “.]