Who “ banishes “ Christmas? Imagine
, some people have also such tradition. “ Fills “ this business Saint Cnut - one of especially esteemed heavenly patrons in the Scandinavian countries. And there is this ceremony for the twentieth day after Catholic Christmas - on January 13 when in the former Soviet Union it is traditionally noted “ old New year “ (it seems the nonsense, and lives tradition!) As they say, everyone walks in own way. However as a result in either case, it appears, the human attention is drawn with effective national methods to indisputable truth: to the novogoyena - Christmas festive “ marathon “ finishes, it is time and to be accepted for good reason again.
Sooner or later to all the end comes. That is some kind of death. In which, perhaps, new life dozes. “ Dies “ and Christmas. Scandinavians dated it for real murder which happened … nearly nine hundred years ago of
Put Saint Cnut - probably, one of the few holidays in which name the direct chronological binding appears. On - Swedish it is called “ Tjugondag Knut “ and the first word means “ twentieth day “ that is in exactly for January thirteenth it is also necessary. The holiday of the historic figure - to Cnut Lavard (1091 - 1131) who was one of grandsons Danish Sven Oestridsson`s Corolla is devoted. On a noble origin, by the way, enters the second part of a name: Lavard - the Danish form of English “ Lord “. The kind king Sven generated numerous descendants so the question of the successor of a throne after his death was particularly acute enough.
In the beginning Cnut was not distinguished from the numerous cousins. Got a family, having taken in the wife the princess Ingeborga - one of Vladimir Monomakh`s granddaughters. The son who in honor of the nice great-grandfather was named Voldemar was born. Almost pious life. But the thought of a throne did not leave. And, by means of intrigues, cunnings and bribery - that was not failed to be noted and chroniclers, - the Whip managed to break in kings. However, its power stretched not for all Denmark but only on the West Slavic tribe of bodrichy. But nevertheless, which - that. Especially as also bodrich (Germans called them obodrita) were not a bast boards. This strong and aggressive tribe, one of the most mysterious Slavic tribes, lived in the lower current of the river of Elba (Laba) and on the Baltic coast more than sixteen centuries - up to the 12th century of a new era; bodrich had the settlements and in the Novgorod earth.
Having set in over bodricha, Cnut Lavard decided that he is worthy also bigger. Also began to prove to the uncle Niels who then was the king of Denmark that he, Cnut has to be the true successor. To the uncle, and also his son, prince Magnus, similar claims, naturally, could not be pleasant. And here, having thought properly over a situation, the father and the son decided to get rid of the applicant. Magnus, having waited for the end of celebration of Christmas, enticed Cnut on a meeting and killed him. There was it on January 7, 1131 in the wood under the city of Ringsted.
Here actually, and all history. Usual interstine dismantling, what in those days - and then! - happened in fair quantity. But the matter is that Cnut`s son Valdemar the Great who became - the king of Denmark, asked at the Pope Benedict IX canonization of the parent. And then, speak, on a grave miracles, and in large numbers began to come true. So the posthumous glory was provided to Saint Cnut. And its began to honor.
At first honored as it is necessary, that is on January 7, in day of his death. But over time this day for some reason “ moved “ on 13 - e number. Perhaps more convenient so was to consider, or there was a wish to unite ominous “ to a chertov dozen “ with mean murder, I do not know. Anyway, over time began to be considered in the Scandinavian countries as day of the termination of Christmas on January 13. It is directly indicated, by the way, by the known Swedish saying “ Tjugondag Knut k ö r julen ut “ (“ In day of Cnut Christmas " is banished;); in parallel there are also less diplomatic variations where Christmas “ it is performed “ (“ dansas “), “ it is swept out “ (“ sopas “) and even “ is thrown out “ (“ kastas “): there is a custom to throw out Christmas trees this day and to organize festivities.
Teenagers in villages dressed up in “ knutgubbe “ - got on on themselves a straw effigy with the clothes which are put on it (isn`t that so, there is a remote similarity to Slavic Maslenitsa?) also went on log huts, making symbolical cleaning - “ swept out Christmas “. And then demanded a payment for work. Men approached a question considerably: gathered in a log hut, strong struck self-races then pushed out each other from doors. When there was the last, Christmas was considered as ended. But so men were allowed to be willful not everywhere. For example, in the area Vermland a holiday was considered female, and for moonshine and songs - dancings gathered women. And men this day had to milk cows …
In a word, to this day “ Tjugondag Knut “ remains in Sweden to one of the most favourite holidays. To a dress, for example with the Annunciation (it is noted on March 25), adventy (the fourth Sunday till Christmas) and Day of Saint Lucia - Queens Sveta (on December 13). And even at all possible absurdities, inevitable for festive turmoil, farewell to Christmas - the kind festival warming houses and souls, giving strength to live and work further. And what can be better?
By the way, besides “ exiles “ Christmas, Cnut Lavard had one more important mission. Together with regal the namesake, the king of Denmark, Sweden, Norway and England (here and so!) Knud Weliki, he was one of patrons so-called “ Knutovsky guilds “. These guilds represented themselves the unions of the Danish merchants which worked very actively in those days and had considerable influence across all Europe. However they were a thing of the past for a long time. And “ Day the twentieth “ remained!]