Domain name in Russian? Easily! Part 1
• A domain name ( the domain ) - area of space of hierarchical names of the Internet which is served by a set of servers of domain names (DNS) and is centrally administered. The domain is identified by a unique name, for example, of domain. ru.
• DNS (abbr. from Domain Name System) - a naming service of domains (the mechanism used in the Internet and establishing compliance between numerical IP addresses and text names).
• ICANN (abbr. from Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) - non-profit organization to destination addresses and names in the Internet, parameters of protocols, to management of domain names of systems.
• IETF (abbr. from Internet Engineering Task Force) - the problem group of design the Internet which is responsible for the solution of engineering tasks the Internet lets out the majority of RFC used by producers for introduction of standards in architecture of TCP/IP).
• RFC (abbr. from Requests for Comments) - Requests for comments (a series of the documents IETF begun in 1969 and containing descriptions of a set of protocols the Internet and the related information).
• IDN (abbr. from Internationalized Domain Names) - support group of multilingual domain names, was created in 1999 in IETF, supports registration of domain names more, than in 60 languages.
• MINC (abbr. from Multilingual Internet Names Consortium) - Consortium multilingual the Internet - names - the organization created in June, 2000 for support of multilingual domain names carries out internationalization of the Internet.
• ASCII (abbr. from American Standard Code for Information Interchange [on - it is American said esk, in Russian - ask]) - the American standard code for exchange of information, 7 - the bit computer coding for submission of the Latin alphabet, decimal figures, some punctuation marks, arithmetic operations and the operating symbols.
• Unicode (Unicode, Unikod) - 16 - the bit standard of coding of symbols allowing to present signs practically of all written languages. The standard was offered in 1991 by " non-profit organization; Consortium of Unicode “ (English Unicode Consortium), uniting the largest IT - corporations. Application of this standard allows to code very large number of symbols from different writings: in the documents Unicode the Chinese hieroglyphs, mathematical symbols, letters of the Greek alphabet, Latin, Cyrillics etc. can adjoin of
the Standard consists from 2 - x the main sections: universal character set (UCS, Universal Character Set) and family of codings (UTF, Unicode Transformation Format). The universal character set sets unambiguous compliance of symbols to codes - to the elements of code space representing non-negative integers. The family of codings defines machine representation of sequence of the UCS codes.
• UTF - 8 is the representation (format) of Unicode providing the best compatibility with the old systems using 8 - bit symbols. The UTF format - 8 was created on September 2, 1992 by Ken Thompson and Rob Payk.
What occurs when we in an address line of the browser gather, for example, of domain. ru ? The simplified scheme the is as follows: DNS system establishes compliance to the domain name www. domain. ru IP addresses, for example, 111. 111. 111. 111. The resource requested by us is found on boundless open spaces of the Internet and loaded on our personal computer. And whether it is impossible instead of domain. ru to gather the domain. ru ?
Background of a question
Historically it developed b so that the Internet (as well as the computer!) arose in the English-speaking environment, and the main restriction of DNS is that for record of domain names it is necessary to use only 37 ASCII symbols (Latin letters from a to z, the Arab figures and a symbol of a hyphen).
But multilingual the Internet - community did not wish to be reconciled with it: for example, Chinese wanted to register domain names on Chinese, Vietnamese - on Vietnamese … The ICANN organization which is responsible for addressing and names on the Internet had to think over: to create “ support groups “ to develop the mass of protocols and standards. But, having agreed with emergence of national domain names, ICANN long insisted on Latin writing of domains of the top level. For example, in the RuNet at first there were websites with the mixed writing of the Russian and Latin letters - Russia. net/and com/, and much later - ru/.
As it took root
Process of introduction of national domain names was very difficult and very long. To keep operability of the existing DNS system, the domain names containing symbols of national alphabets it is necessary to recode in the general for all system of addressing a form. In 2003 the IETF IDN group for submission of national alphabets chose the universal coding UTF - 8. From this coding domain names are definitely transformed to sequences of ASCII - symbols. Such decision allows to achieve independence of the operating systems used on the party of the client, and at the same time conforms to requirements of already existing DNS system.
It should be noted very important nuance. Applying Russian-speaking (or kitayskoyazychny) domain names, actually, we just amuse the national vanity: internationalization of domain names does not repeal the existing protocols of work of DNS - in it all and remains in ASCII symbols, the multilingualism is as if added from above.
To be continued]