What else made “ father “ atomic bomb Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov?
All know Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov as “ father “ atomic bomb. But journalists represent it the magnificent organizer, than the scientist more. And nuclear secrets are considered stolen abroad. About its scientific works as physics, know much less. And without them there would be no Kurchatov - the organizer. What did he make for science?
But at first he was born on January 12, 1903 - 105 years ago.
In 1923 ended physics - mathematical faculty of the Crimean university.
At the beginning of 1924 there was the first scientific work of Kurchatov - about snow radioactivity. And from 1925 to 1930 with colleagues on Leningrad the physics - to technical institute under the leadership of A. F. Ioffe is engaged in dielectrics. As a result of these works the new class of dielectrics - a ferroelectric material was open. In 1931 - 32 years conducted a number of researches on physics of semiconductors - studied photo cells with the locking layer. In 1934 for works on a ferroelectric material, dielectrics and semiconductors to Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov doctor physicist`s degree - mathematical sciences without defense of a thesis is awarded.
In 1932 Kurchatov begins to go in for nuclear physics. By this time his talents of the creator and head of research teams are brightly shown. Together with employees creates high-voltage installation and the accelerator of protons in 1933. In 1934 begins researches on physics of neutrons. Together with colleagues opens in 1935 the phenomenon of a nuclear isomerism at bromine. Conducts researches of nuclear reactions of fast and slow neutrons. Proves capture of a neutron a proton. Since 1939 begins to study division of heavy-nuclei. In 1940 under the leadership of Kurchatov his pupils open spontaneous uranium fission. Same year Kurchatov proved an opportunity and carried out chain nuclear reaction in system of uranium with heavy water.
Since the beginning of war Kurchatov works on a problem of protection of the ships against magnetic mines that allowed to reduce losses of fleet. At this time its laboratory is evacuated to Kazan. At the end of August, 1942 the State committee of defense makes the decision on expansion of works on kernel physics. In one of buildings in the yard of the Kazan university it is created confidential “ Laboratory No. 2 “. At the beginning of 1943 she moves to Moscow at first on the hodynsky field, and then on the bank of the river of Moscow near Silver pine forest. 30 years later in the Kazan building radiation traces, and to us were found out as to experts, it was necessary to be engaged in their deactivation.
In 1943 Kurchatov with the staff of laboratory develops the theoretical and experimental methods necessary for development of nuclear reactors. Intelligence information about the American researches in this area promoted acceleration of works, but did not contain key ideas. In December, 1946 the first in our country uranium - the graphite reactor was started. On its base nuclear (1949) also hydrogen (1953) bombs were created later. In 1954 under the direct guide of the pupil Kurchatov of D. I. Blokhintsev the first-ever nuclear power plant is started. Other his pupils in the same years create reactors for the nuclear submarine (1958) and the first-ever nuclear ice breaker (1959). In 50 - e years under the leadership of Kurchatov begin researches on a problem of the operated thermonuclear synthesis.
The academician Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov on February 7, 1960 at the age of only 57 years died.]