Came to Come the first to mind that the theater begins with a hanger?
on January 17, 1863, 145 years ago, in a family of the Moscow industrialist Sergey Alekseev the son who was named Konstantin was born. The family was one of the best-known in Russia - Alekseev consisted in relationship both with Savva Mamontov, and with brothers Tretyakov. And a bit later the cousin of Konstantin - Nikolay within 8 years from 1885 to 1893 (to the death) was the Moscow mayor.
Konstantin spent the most part of time in a country house in Lyubimovk`s estate where there was a theatrical wing, and in it the amateur troupe and whether it is necessary to say that the boy from early age fell in love with theatrical representations played, and he with great pleasure watched both comedies, and tragedies, and vaudevilles. And considering the fact that it had an exclusive memory, he already from teenage age wanted to play in some performance.
As refusal to it was not in anything, Konstantin Alekseev from 14 years began to play in performances. Especially it were successful comic roles in vaudevilles and operettas. And even study in Lazarevskoye institute did not prevent hobby. And, all this was put on high level - with young talent the best Moscow teachers were engaged in a vocal and plasticity. Maly Theatre was the special page in Konstantin`s life, he literally enjoyed acting of this troupe and even tried to imitate them in everything; especially it liked Alexander Pavlovich Lensky whose “ playwright “ Alexander Ostrovsky and in whose plays Lensky got leading roles …
B of Konstantin Alekseev who took a scenic pseudonym Stanislavsky was 1886 elect the member of management and the treasurer of the Moscow office of the Russian musical society and the conservatory consisting at it. Now, having had an opportunity to learn art from within, Konstantin Sergeyevich suddenly understands: to move forward both theater, and dramatic art without which it is dead it is necessary to create something special. The idea of the young theater-goer is picked up by the teacher Komissarzhevsky and the artist Sollogub. But acquaintance of the patron to the director Fedotov became the last point which gave an impulse to creation of new association which was called by the Moscow society of art and literature. The last resolutely presented a leading role to the actor - the fan, and did not lose. Stanislavsky played 10 years on stage MOIIL, and during this time he considerably added as the actor. Already charged it roles without everyone “ stretches “ and examining on a purse … all - any fairy tale comes to an end with
I... also this did not become an exception. Stanislavsky suddenly understood that he does not see any more an opportunity to escape from pincers of routine, and at the deadlock does not want to be trampled down. The destiny reduced it with one more person for whom the theater was more, than life - Vladimir Nemirovich - Danchenko. Two inveterate theater-goers agreed to meet to discuss a condition of art in general, and theater in particular.
They met at 13 o`clock in the afternoon, and left at 7 o`clock in the morning, and this conversation is worthy entering in the Guinness Book of Records as it continued the whole 18 hours! During this time future partners managed to discuss practically everything, beginning from distribution of their roles in theater, and finishing troupes with on what authors to stake. It was most of all lucky Anton Pavlovich Chekhov for whom two hands “ for “ there was both Stanislavsky, and Nemirovich - Danchenko.
But there passed almost a year more before in the country place of Pushkino situated near Moscow work of the troupe of Moscow Art Theatre created from Nemirovich`s pupils - Danchenko on philharmonic halls and actors - fans of Society of art and literature where " began; reigned “ Stanislavsky. The theatrical public with impatience expected the first premiere, all - will see game in four hands behind the director`s panel infrequently.
First everything went more - less adequately, each of the maestro brought in a performance something special, unique. But on Gorky`s play “ At the bottom “ the triumvirate gave the first crack - each of directors saw a performance on the. Everything ended with the fact that everyone remained at the concept …
the Important role played in their dissonance also a categorical statement of Nemirovich that tragic roles - not the fad of Stanislavsky. He believed, but then was convinced that his partner appeared not the rights, and time ruthlessly left …
the Fraternal affection existed within 8 years, and since 1906 everyone worked independently, the truth under the same roof. However, Stanislavsky, violent before work, managed to get love “ on the party “ having created art theater with Meyerhold.
But me it would be desirable to stop on postrevolutionary creativity of Stanislavsky. His many contemporaries reproached the maestro that he enough - loyally treats the Soviet power, often works by the principle: “ It is better not to tease Geese “. And really, it appear near at hand at Konstantin Sergeyevich the play comparable on destructive power with the same play “ At the bottom “ - it is unlikely he would agree to put it. It was reproached for the fact that it does not put very bright performances according to plays of revolutionary playwrights. But he laughed the matter off supposedly all these plays have to stand the test of time. Though you will not refuse to it courage - Bulgakov`s play “ Days of Turbin “ Stanislavsky delivered to one of the first, and made it skillfully.
There were, at least, two main reasons “ restraint “ venerable director. In - the first, during celebration 30 - the anniversaries of Moscow Art Theatre to the maestro there was cruel heart attack, and doctors warned that excessive fervor and nervousness can lead to the tragic end. In - the second, the same Stalin never forgot to remind Stanislavsky what he fields berry, not a proletarian origin. Then - that stood on ceremony with the people who had before revolution special merits, not really …
Yes, can be, in the last years of life Stanislavsky was not as bright as earlier. But what pupils it prepared! One Meyerhold of what costs! And Stanislavsky`s system recognized as one of the most effective systems of training of actors in the world! It is necessary to add that all life hand in hand with Konstantin Sergeyevich there passed his spouse - Maria Petrovna Lilina (Perevoshchikova), the actress of the Moscow Art Theatre from the date of the basis, the honored actress of RSFSR (1933). The wife endured the husband for five years and died in 1943. The director`s daughter - Cyrus Alekseev - Falk long time was the director of the House museum of Stanislavsky, she died relatively recently, in 1977.
Konstantin Sergeyevich died on August 7, 1938 in Moscow, on 66 - m to year of life. And its sayings: “ The Theatre begins with a hanger “ “ I do not trust! “ “ Who is able to soar over the earth, that will not fall to it “ - live and until now …]