What do we know about the Odessa city`s mayor Alexander Lanzherona?
on January 13, 1763, 245 years ago, in Paris, in a family the general - the lieutenant of the French army Lanzherona was born the son who was named Louis Aleksander Andre. Since the childhood the boy grew in a situation where army everything breathed literally. And it is no wonder that as soon as the guy is 16 years old, he is determined by the second lieutenant in a regiment the column Lady. And in three years Alexander together with the fellow soldiers goes to the USA where insurgents battle against the worst enemies of French - British. And instead it turns out in Venezuela (Caracas) and Haiti (Seong - Domingo) where within two years bears hard service.
However, in 1782 19 - summer Alexander appears there where aspired, in the USA. Here it proves the brave officer and even in foreign business trip is appointed the captain of a dragoon regiment. However, the captain Lanzheron there passed something about a year. He receives a colonelcy for merits and bravery, and comes back to France.
It went home, overwhelmed by the highest feelings, but the reality turned out not such iridescent. And though he with delight accepts great French bourgeois revolution of 1789, but quickly understands that the insurgent people can hitch up on the gallows several tens, and even hundreds of generals who are considered by Jacobeans as suppressors of freedoms in army. And with colonels the court was even well …
to Wait until the tragedy happens, Alexander did not become, and emigrated to Russia where in May 7, 1790 he took oath of allegiance to the empress Catherine II. Military rank “ colonel “ Lanzherona is left, but right there directed to fighting positions (goes russko - the Swedish war). In the beginning he battles against Sweden as a part of the flotilla from six fighting ships directed by prince Nassausky and takes part in capture of Vyborg. Then as a part of 1 - go the Siberian grenadierial regiment Lanzheron battles near Byerk where he for bravery is awarded the order Saint George of the IV degree.
After the end of the Swedish campaign the colonel appears near Izmail where together with Suvorov troops participates in capture of fortress. But during storm he gets wound in a leg and after treatment is provided with appointment of the commander-in-chief of army in Moldova of the prince Repnin. And again one battle replaces another.
And the next year the colonel Lanzheron battles in the ranks of army of volunteers in the Netherlands, and then in “ armies of the Prince “ in Champagne. It is caused to St. Petersburg from where together with the duke Richelieu direct as the Russian military observer to the prince of Saxony, the commander of the Austrian army in Northern France and the Netherlands. 1,5 years of continuous fights later it return to Russia and give the Little Russian regiment of grenadiers under team.
But the most important - to the gallant French colonel has a kind feeling the emperor Paul I, especially after Lanzheron becomes the Russian citizen. In 1797 to it the rank the general - the major is given, a year later he is already a general - the lieutenant, and in 1799 personally the emperor appropriates it a title of count. The same year he receives under the beginning the case in Kurland …
any Russian general could dream Of such magnificent career, but not everyone was so lucky. And all - art and skill of the commander is shown, first of all, in battles. The next large collision Lanzherona happened to be expected within 5 years, so far, at last, near Austerlits, Russians and French did not meet with each other.
The general from an infanteriya Friedrich Wilhelm Buxgewden, from kurlyandsky Germans, the commander of the case, charges to Lanzheronuvozglavit a column from 6 - ti regiments and to take Pratsensky heights. It was for this purpose necessary to carry out coverage of the French army, but skilled Napoleonic marshals outwitted the former compatriot who, even despite big losses, could not take heights. Those frequent quarrels which arose between Lanzheron and Buxgewden developed into the real scandal, and the German declared the main guilty person of defeat of the case in battle of the Frenchman.
Lanzherona there is no nothing else left how to write the official report about resignation, however without army he spends no more than a year. Alexander I returns Lanzherona on the South, in the Danube army. In five years he becomes the close associate of M. I. Kutuzov. And Napoleonic invasion, liberation of Europe from the French yoke, and, at last, in quality " is farther; sweet surprise “ - capture of heights of Montmartre that became a key in fight for the French capital.
And on November 10, 1815 the general from an infanteriya Lanzheron is appointed the Kherson military governor, the Odessa city`s mayor operating civil part in the Kherson, Taurian and Ekaterinoslavsky provinces glavnonachalstvuyushchy over bugsky and Black Sea Cossacks … already in the very first days of its stay at a position of the city`s mayor inhabitants of Odessa managed to show to
I Lanzherona who in the house the real owner. So, during its meeting with trade people at the gallant general directly from - under a nose stole a gold watch …
But what it is impossible to refuse to the Frenchman is in aspiration to make life in the city easier, sublime, and if it is possible so to speak, democratic. At least he succeeded in it because many Odessa clans soon “ prosekl counter “ also began to twirl by the city`s mayor as a tail a dog.
For memory of Lanzherona to inhabitants of Odessa remained: city`s first " newspaper; Messager de la of Russia meridional “ the institution of mineral waters in the gardens was open, the botanical garden which played a huge role in gardening not only " is laid out; pearls by the sea “ but also all edge. And emergence of the second in Russia after Tsarskoye Selo - Rishelyevsky lyceum - too one of important achievements …
Important for Lanzherona became acquaintance to Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin: to the poet the city`s mayor read to the exiled the plays and verses, and that was forced to listen to these compositions, without having a special opportunity to govern. This friendship, by the way, existed and after the Frenchman left Odessa. In 1820 he asked the emperor “ to divide “ positions of the governor and the city`s mayor, having chosen the first, and three years later at all left this country. It is remarkable that among the guests invited by Pushkin for a meeting New, 1830, also Alexander Lanzheron … was registered Above all the Frenchman was afraid to catch
plague or cholera. It also happened in 1831. Lanzheron “ burned down “ from cholera in few days, having died on July 4. The city`s mayor bequeathed to bury himself ex-in Odessa. This request was satisfied - he is buried in the city which ruled …]