From whose easy hand of a lottery began to travel around Europe?
on January 11, 1559 in London was given, as usual, in the foggy and crude afternoon. Before noon numerous gilded carriages were flown down to the building of St. Paul`s Cathedral. Carriages left elegant people who entered a cathedral and closed behind themselves massive doors. Citizens, seeing that carriages become more and more, tried to squeeze into a cathedral, but gatekeepers politely explained that the service will be not absolutely usual, and right after its termination the England`s first state lottery, part in which can take only invited, will take place.
One of the last to St. Paul`s Cathedral there arrived the queen of England Elizabeth I whom a bit later the people allocated with the loud title “ The Queen - the virgin “. However, it did not prevent then the same Londoners to be whispered between itself supposedly not such the queen was also a virgin, and her most famous son - not who other as William Shakespeare. However, for those who did not believe that Shakespeare was the queen`s son willingly presented other version supposedly the great playwright - the secret son of Maria Stewart. In a word, the shortcoming of versions was not.
It is necessary to mention also that a bit later to secret sons of Elizabeth I attributed also George Villiers famous to us on immortal “ mushketersky “ to Alexandre Dumas`s novel on the title - the duke Bekingem, but it was already astride impropriety because George was born in 1592 when he to the queen went already 60 - y year …
But we will return in a year 1559 - y. It was, in fact, the first year of government of Elizaveta, woman with extraordinary bright biography which still waits for the consideration. England at that time was very weak, first of all, in the military and economic relation, being actually in blockade. And to untie this knot, politicians offered only one means - as soon as possible successfully to marry the queen. And even the circle of applicants was called - Philip II, the king of Spain; archdukes of Austria Karl and Frederik; Eric XIV, king of Sweden; Heinrich, duke Anzhuysky, future king of France; Francois, duke Alensonsky and some other. The most picturesque figure in this list - the Russian tsar Ivan the Terrible who was more senior than Elizaveta only for 3 years … However Elizaveta was
the lady with character (already part of her citizens for eyes called her the man in a skirt) and declared: “ While I am not going to get married and how to improve financial things of the state, I know “. Also suggested to carry out a lottery …
Should tell that “ feeler “ it was very successful. 400000 tickets intended for sale were made. Winners were waited by remuneration in the form of a gobelin, gold and money. Fund raising on repair became the purpose of carrying out it is southern - the English ports and harbors. The part of money went also to other social needs. However, did not do also without tar spoon: the lost citizens who fairly were spent for participation in a sensational innovation soon lifted after that revolt. But it, naturally, was stopped in a germ … Tradition to carry out by
the state lotteries in England existed till 1825, so far, at last, opponents of lotteries did not get the best. But for more than two centuries on “ lottery “ money was constructed the well-known British museum, the London aqueduct, a number of bridges, not to list everything …
Should be mentioned also history of lotteries in general. In 100 years B.C. the Chinese dynasty Han created game of keno which became the progenitress of future lotteries. Money went for construction of the Great Wall. “ Happiness Pieces of paper “ plebeians pulled out in days of big holidays in Ancient Rome. Tickets were distributed free of charge, and monetary prizes were won by several lucky.
In Europe official history of lotteries began with draw which the widow of the artist Jan Van Eyk in Bruges arranged on February 24, 1466, to 25 - y to anniversary of death of the husband. To try the luck everyone, bought ticket could win a monetary prize. Collecting was intended for city poor people.
Between 1520 and 1532 the king of France Francis I allowed carrying out in several cities of lotteries for the purpose of obtaining the personal and public income. The first known large-scale lottery where the prize was paid by money, is considered so-called “ De Lotto de Firenze “ which was carried out in Florence in 1530. Its success was so big that this practice quickly extended to other cities of Italy.
If to return to France, then the king - the Sun Louis XIV suited a sure-fire lottery for himself darling and the next court once. Won everything that it was possible to win. The fooled people grabbed a pitchfork. It was necessary to return to the king money and prizes (there was in the history also it).
And in general - the lottery became in the safe way “ vytryasaniye “ money from the population. Especially succeeded in it on “ to the homeland of elephants “ in the USA where only in 1790 on the income from lotteries 50 colleges, 300 schools and 200 churches were constructed. By the way, the most known universities of type of Harvard, Yale, held Princeton and Colombia generally the account of lotteries in those days.
As for Russia, here the fashion came to carrying out lotteries at the beginning of the 18th century, together with Peter I`s reforms. The Moscow watchmaker Yakov Gassenus organized it. Two children pulled out lottery tickets from a box, and Gassenus at once enriched lucky. But at us this idea did not get accustomed, and only in 1782 the lottery was legalized by the imperial decree.
In 1918 the lottery was declared by a bourgeois remnant of the past, but in 1921 from - for cruel a crop failure was decided to return to a remnant. And in the Soviet Union there were not really many people who never in life pecked on the vigorous slogan monetary - ware lotteries: “ Who will take tickets a pack, that will receive … a pumping station! “ and various lottos, the most known of which was “ Sport lotto “. If to speak about the contemporary history of Russia, then today only instant lotteries there is not one ten. Here only not always white begin and … win!]