Acoustic sagas. How the sound was put on a regiment?
For certain the idea to imprint a sound for the future for repeated reproduction chafed many minds. Passed more than 130 years from the moment of the first attempt of a sound recording on the mechanical carrier by the American inventor Thomas Edison. By the way, break in the field of a sound recording happened practically along with Edison`s invention. By the beginning of the 20th century all ways (or, at least, realization methods) an analog recording of a sound were invented.
Perhaps, here it is necessary to explain the concept “ analog “. the signal which value changes in time continuously, smoothly is considered analog. Contrary to analog, digital the signal consists of a set of discrete values - steps.
The scheme of a sound recording practically in all cases is identical. The reformative device turns fluctuations of air into some other type of a signal (mechanical, electric, optical, etc.) . The signal transformed to new quality containing more or less full information on an initial sound signal moves on the sound recording device where it is fixed in the mechanical, photographic or magnetic way. The return process is also simple and obvious. The signal which is read out by means of the sound removing device from the analog carrier will be transformed, and then amplifies and turns into sound.
The oldest, mechanical way of record means physical cutting or expression of flutes with the form corresponding to sound vibrations in the material possessing sufficient softness. In 1877 Edison used a tin foil which it placed on the rotating cylinder as the carrier. Paths on a foil were formed by the needle attached to the center of a membrane from parchment.
Perhaps, for fun it is possible to claim that then - that and was born the concept soundtrack (soundtrack). The mechanic who made an exotic thingummy by request of Edison for 18 dollars bet that at that nothing will leave. Of course, the mechanic lost dispute. All being present at experiment clearly heard Edison`s story about Mary and a lamb proceeding from the device which he read on a phonograph membrane. Up to now from various mechanical carriers only the phonograph record lived.
The photographic way is realized by change of a form or intensity of a light beam depending on sound vibrations. So sound “ remove “ on a film in sound cinema. Feature of sound cinema is simultaneity of record of the image and a sound for which on a film different paths were allocated. Practical realization of technical thought of combination of a sound and the image on one film took about a quarter of the century from the moment of the first attempts of a photographic sound recording at the very beginning of the 20th century.
The recorder audio cassette, perhaps, was the most hardy of all household carriers of an analog sound. The principle of a sound recording on a magnetic tape is simple. The sound head adjoining to a film under the influence of the electric signals possessing the intensity depending on sound level magnetizes sites of the moving tape possessing magnetic properties. History of a magnetic sound recording was begun with the moment of production of the device for a sound recording on a steel wire by Dane Valdemar Paulsen in 1898.
In spite of the fact that analog carriers are a source “ live “ a sound, the existing obvious shortcomings led to full replacement by their digital carriers in the majority of branches of the sound industry. These shortcomings: fragility (all analog carriers are subject to aging), wear at frequent use, at influence of factors of environment (mechanical damages, pollution, strong magnetic fields, etc.), the inconvenient sizes, loss of quality at transfer on other carriers, etc.]