Who “ stole “ at the Soviet people to a banknote in 75 rubles?
on January 9, 1768, 240 years ago, presented to the Russian empress Catherine II a peculiar New Year`s gift - samples of paper money which could go in Russia. It were not in full understanding of this word of the bank note as were made of old palace napkins and cloths. Most likely, it were the beautiful forfeits intended for palace games … to
But such “ easy money “ Very much it were pleasant to Catherine II though for a while she about them also forgot. And remembered how the group of the Russian Cossacks, pursuing the Polish insurgents disappearing under protection of Turks intruded in borders of the Ottoman Empire that allowed the sultan Moustapha III to declare war of Russia. To be at war, figuratively speaking it was necessary on two fronts: and the Polish opposition to pacify, and to fight with Turks. So military expenses sharply increased, and here in the Urals where minted copper money, the rivers flooded banks and vessels with ready copper coins did not get to the capital. In a word, a radical exit was necessary.
The empress found it almost without serious consequences: she published the Manifesto on foundation of two assignatsionny banks and issue of bank notes (paper money). Strikes efficiency of actions of Catherine II. In the same Manifesto signed, by the way, on December 29, 1768 it was declared that circulation of paper money will begin in 3 days - since January 1, 1769.
If to speak about history of paper money in general, then for the first time they appeared in China, and in Europe about it “ miracle “ it became known according to the famous traveler Marco Polo, who lived in Celestial Empire about 17 years. He reported that during board of a dynasty Yuan (here, it turns out from where the name of the main Chinese currency went), and it was in 1271 - 1368, paper money was the main settlement means...
But Europe did not hurry to enter paper money (eventually, they do not possess such beautiful ring), and entered them by an example of North America where bank notes for the first time appeared in the State of Massachusetts, - in 1690. In Europe French at whom bank notes appeared in 1718 became fashion-makers (before instead of paper money were used “ tickets of coins “ since 1701). But the old woman Europe kept silence, up to 1762 when paper money appeared at first in Austria again, and then, three years later, - in Prussia.
It is interesting that Russia quite could be both ahead of Austria, and ahead of Prussia. For quarter of the century to the described events an asessor of Monetary office Ivan Shlatter and vice-the president Kommerts - boards Melissen introduced the draft of issue of bank notes to the senate, but very much far from Russians they had surnames, here deputies and “ gave a ride “ project. And the reason for refusal was that on there is Russian supposedly “ paper does not contain soul “. It is possible to think that copper contains …
B 1762 of Russia nearly managed to outstrip Austria, and Catherine II`s spouse, Peter III , in May issued the special decree on introduction of paper money. But he needed to live a little more than a month, the emperor was killed, and his spouse did not address this subject till the beginning russko - the Turkish war … What banknotes were issued by
? They were four look: 25, 50, 75 and 100 rubles. And, a banknote of each look it was printed for the sum of 250 thousand rubles. Especially made a reservation that in any payment a share “ pieces of paper “ should not exceed quarters of all payment unless the seller will insist on that it has more than a distance of bank notes.
That bank notes were issued only by one paint and on the one hand papers, readers “ ShZh “ already know, it mentioned in the article Elena Kravchuk . I want to tell about what it was not told about, namely: in two years the first forgeries were revealed. And, “ handwriting “ counterfeiters of that time differed in nothing from today`s. As the excess zero to one of banknotes could not be attributed (such bank notes just did not exist in the nature), dashing people managed to correct “ two “ on “ seven “ owing to what “ chetvertak “ gave out for 75 rubles. An exit was found just amazing - from the second half of 1771 of a banknote of 75 rubles just ceased to print!
And now tell, all those my dear readers who well remember themselves at the time of the Soviet Union. Unless you did not pay attention that we had a banknote of 25 rubles (violet), green five-ten, the yellow one hundred, and a banknote in 75 rubles dropped out somewhere? I reflected over " too; loss “. And the small chest, as they say, just opens. Ingenious course of Catherine II.
It is necessary to add that Russians were Russians, in full understanding of this word also in those days. When there was not enough paper money - the press was used. As we remember, in 1769 was in circulation a banknote for 1 million rubles. And here by the end of reign of Catherine II, in 1796, that is in a little more than a quarter of the century, bank notes was already on 150 (!) one million rubles and this with the fact that the banknotes which left the address simply - naprosto burned. All this led to the fact that for paper ruble gave already no more than 68 kopeks copper (whether reminds this classical ratio of ruble and dollar in Brezhnev`s times?). And 17 more years later, by 1814, for one paper ruble gave only 20 kopeks in a market day. But it already perfect other history …]