As the power doomed “ trouble-maker of a canvas “ on starvation?
on January 8, 1883, 125 years ago, in Moscow, in a poor large family of Nikolay Filonov the son named by Pavel was born. The father, the carrier, and mother, the laundress, at all the diligence could not provide to children more - less tolerable life, and therefore the senior girls early mastered art embroidery of towels, cloths which then were on sale. And near sisters Pavlik took a needle in hand too and soon a little in what conceded to them, having in passing mastered the first lesson - ability to feel cloth space.
Long ago it is noticed that those children who succeeded in something to school accustom to the world of training, new to themselves easier. Something similar happened also to Pavel, at elementary school he surpassed many schoolmates. And when during lessons most quicker performed the teacher`s task, it had time for that being engaged in something special. Filonov did not decide to embroider, and he always had pencils at hand, and he just dreamed what “ plot “ will master in the evening upon return of home.
The only thing that was not pleasant to the boy in all this invention with embroidery - drawings were fulfilled that is called to holes. He wanted to represent the yard, a pigeon who flew up in blue of the sky, the first dismissed kidneys - harbingers of spring, the granny treating with the most tasty peas pies, and it was necessary to string an ornament on an ornament …
Pavel graduated from Elementary school with honors. It was also brilliantly disaccustomed also at city parish school, but here a large family the trouble trapped - parents one by one left. To remain one in Moscow - means practically to find itself on hunger. That is why children were going to move to St. Petersburg to married elder sister Aleksandra. To honor of the sister and her husband, they did not refuse relatives.
Moving to the capital gave Filonov new opportunities. So, Pavel appeared in malyarno - a picturesque workshop at school of Society of encouragement of arts. But it was such greedy before study that after classes began to visit also evening drawing classes of native school. But, nevertheless, in 18 - summer age gained only one diploma - the painter - the cleaner. Do not think that it has some relation to construction or cleaning of rooms. The word " approaches it more; oformitelstvo “.
In 20 - summer age Filonov decides to come to Academy of Arts, but his works did not impress a selection committee, showed to the guy a refusal. Instead in the fall Pavel comes back to native school, to a class of natural art this time. In parallel he begins to take lessons in a private workshop of the academician L. E. Dmitriyev - the Caucasian, passionate fan Kuntskamera and the deleting of all framework and borders demanding from the pupils.
The big impression on Filonov was made by his trip to Palestine and New Athos where Pavel together with pilgrims visited the holy sites. It seems that this pilgrimage also put to the termination to the relations of the teacher and pupil …
From the fourth time (!) Filonov, at last, manages to come to Academy of Arts. But in two years it was excluded for participation in disorders. However it not really upset the artist - the avant-gardist. Together with the friends and followers he creates the St. Petersburg society of artists “ Union of youth “ at which exhibition shows the first works.
One of the most striking traits of Pavel Nikolaevich - his enormous diligence. He could draw, having leaned a back against a wall and not rising from a chair, till 18 - 20 hours in a row, forgetting about food and other pleasures of life. And its work “ Man and woman “ becomes that work about which speak in the capital. Another thing is that not all audience was ready to perceive the world such what it seemed to Filonov. In something he surprisingly reminds Mayakovsky in literature, and not incidentally Vladimir Vladimirovich invited Pavel Nikolaevich to issue scenery for the futuristic performance. And a bit later before the audience one of writers made the report “ P. N. Filonov is a zavershitel of a psychological intimizm “.
Of course, the bourgeois and inhabitants, far from any art, reacted to Filonov`s works with the known share of fastidiousness, and here the youth liked this symbolism, this spittle in soul of full society. They were sure, Filonov expresses the disturbing thoughts which are condensed over premilitary Europe, it is very correct …
War did not avoid the artist, he spent two years in the field army battling in Romania. And this period became defining - Pavel Nikolaevich caught a homespun truth of life: defying by lack of interest in achievements of scientific thought, studying of classics is a way to the deadlock. And not incidentally after return from the front he actively studies works such versatile “ classics “ as Linney, Darwin, Mendeleyev, Michurina, Pasteur. Pavel Nikolaevich begins “ to grow up “ life on the cloths as sprouts … Filonov worked as
After revolution of 1917 on completion of the work “ Analytical painting “. At the same time he paid much attention to search of the special style again. In 1925 it, having found many followers, founded school in Petrograd. This school was closed by the government in 1928 together with all private art and cultural organizations.
The Stalin power not really - that favored the artist who is least of all anxious with promotion of victories of a socialist system and its leaders. Several times exhibitions of its works were developed, but are not open. And though Filonov was not repressed, but approached him too close, having arrested husbands of two sisters. The only light spot - release 25 - the thousand circulation of a color reproduction from Filonov`s picture “ Women`s shock crew at " plant; Red dawn “ in Leningrad “.
But it was rather an exception, than the rule. Orders forbade to take the artist, pensions deprived, and after arrest of the family, it, in fact, was provided to itself. But, living from hand to mouth, Filonov trusted in the better future.
Unfortunately, he did not wait for the termination “ black strip of destiny “. The Great Patriotic War began, Leningrad was taken in blockade. Pavel Nikolaevich Filonov died from exhaustion in the first blockade winter - on December 3, 1941. According to the petition of his pupils and by means of the Union of artists it was buried in a separate grave on the Serafimovsky cemetery to the left of an entrance to St. Seraphim of Sarov`s temple (nowadays the State Russian Museum established a stele with a name of the artist on his grave and a memorial plate on a house facade where he lived and died).
Filonov is considered one of the brightest artists of the first third of the XX century, but to the authorities it was uninteresting. And therefore death “ trouble-maker of a canvas “ as called it which - which of contemporaries, tried to become silent. In any case, many newspapers just did not report about it.
Fortunately, at present generation of Russians the attitude towards Filonov other. Exhibitions of its works take place from time to time. So, not only we will remember that on January 8 to Pavel Nikolaevich 125 years … would be executed]