Why to consider spots on the Sun?
Before answering this question, at first we will ask - and what is these spots?
For mankind at all times of its existence the Sun was the main heavenly body which spares Earth life, light, heat. And at the same time the Sun - a source of hundreds of questions.
At first sight the Sun - is dazzling a bright, light sphere. In informal conversation often use turns “ clear sun “ “ pure, as sun “.
But in 1613 Galileo Galilei, the Italian physicist, the mathematician and the astronomer, publishes the well-known letters where he speaks about solar spots as result of supervision by means of the telescope created by it. And from now on began, however, not always systematically, to register spots on the Sun.
Galilei`s supervision disproved the general opinion on faultlessness of our star. And it borders on heresy. It is so possible to doubt both God, and in divine power of kings.
Nevertheless, supervision of the scientist were confirmed. And on the Sun to see, the lightest, most blank, most faultless disk there are spots! Sometimes they can even be seen with the naked eye when the Sun is low over the horizon. What is represented by them why arise as they influence life on Earth - explanations much.
These dark educations on the Sun disk still in many respects remain a riddle. In the telescope it is visible that they have complex structure.
Spots happen different - from “ small “ diameter “ in total “ 1000 - 2000 km, to huge, surpassing the sizes of our Earth. The biggest spot with a diameter of 100 thousand kilometers is recorded in 1995 by Solar observatory of SOHO. Ponder, it more than is seven times more than Earth diameter.
Spots often form groups of several big and small spots. The picture of group all the time changes, spots are born, grow, break up, disappear. There live spots rather long, sometimes 2 - 3 turns of the Sun (a cycle time of the Sun of about 27 terrestrial days).
Solar spots are caused by the powerful magnetic fields arising in the Sun. This field obstructs the plasma traffic, slows down its convection that weakens access of energy from Sun depth. Therefore temperature in spots on 1000 - 1500 To below, than around, and they seem dark though their real color - red. Most often spots arise in the equatorial zone of the Sun, their form, the sizes and quantity constantly change.
For the answer to the questions connected with the Sun the system of supervision - the so-called service of the Sun uniting almost increasing observatories of Earth, and also special stations was created. Registration of dark stains and flashes for the Sun became the main objective of activity of this service.
Total action of the phenomena on a surface of the Sun is called as solar activity. These are dark stains, flashes, torches, prominences. The more these phenomena, the activity of the Sun is more.
It turned out that are very important for people of Earth of manifestation of solar activity. And time are important, they should be expressed somehow quantitatively.
For an assessment of solar activity the Swiss astronomer Wolf entered a simple method which cornerstone calculation of quantity of solar spots is: W=10g+f, where W - an index of solar activity, g - the number of groups of spots, f - total of all spots.
In days of high activity of the Sun the quantity of spots grows whereas in days of the quiet Sun of spots it is not enough.]