What did Pavel Aleppsky tell us about pre-Pertine Russia?
of the Note of foreigners about travel across Ancient Russia - a magnificent source of data on everyday life of moskovit, their life and customs. Among works of this sort independently cost published more than a century ago and republished rather recently (M., 2005 - the quote according to this edition) diaries of the archdeacon Pavel Aleppsky “ Antiokhiysky`s Travel the patriarch Makari to Russia in half of the 17th century “.
Pavel Aleppsky, the native son of Makari, the patriarch Antiokhiysky, accompanied the father on three years` travel (1654 - 1656) to the Moscow tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich. Collecting donations was the purpose of travel - the Moscow sovereign is friendly and was generous to completely impoverished brothers in faith.
As Pavel wrote, he began to keep records about the travel at the request of one of the Damask acquaintances. The publication consists of fifteen books. The first book contains the description of Constantinople, the second - Moldova, the third - Walachia, the fourth and part a heel - Ukraine. Starting with the fifth book, the story already about the Moscow earth follows. The book the sixth is a narration about Kolomna and Tula, the seventh, eighth, ninth and part of the tenth - about Moscow and the Trinity - the Sergiyevy monastery. In the eleventh book there is a speech about travel to Novgorod and return to Moscow through Tver. In the twelfth book it is told about return of embassy through Ukraine, Moldova and Walachia (books the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth) and further - not only on the ground, but also by the sea - home, in Aleppo. I list everything in detail for this purpose that the reader imagined the volume of this work - both by the size, and on coverage of a subject.
There is a lot of all strange and surprising Pavel Aleppsky in the country of moskovit saw. I will tell quotes, at least how the Russian winter amazed the story-teller and brought the Lent into despondency.
“ Know that weather in this country of moskovit such is that from the Erection holiday prior to the beginning of the Nativity Fast there are strong wind and rains at night, and at the beginning of this post goes plentiful snow and does not cease to go till April. It freezes a layer behind a layer so at a big frost of the road from driving become covered with ice and become similar to a marble block … During the winter in this country there is a low cost and trade in grain bread … " is made;.
“ When freezing the rivers also all pickles which was in houses, barns and benches froze; for example, wooden oil which we bought was in pieces, like a manna or halvah. Honey became as the stone which is difficult broken; as well eggs froze and became as the stones which are not breaking. As for fish, as soon as she was pulled out from the river, she immediately froze and, like logs, published knock at blow the friend about the friend. It remained frozen till March, without being exposed to any damage … The way of its catching is very surprising at this time: fishermen, having come to the river, break on it ice in the form of a deep well, fish comes to take a breath to this place; at this time the networks lowered earlier pull out and production turns out more plentiful, than during a summer time. Because at this time fish is very cheap … “.
The foods which were served on imperial inclusion in honor of the patriarch Makari shook Pavel Aleppsky: “ … gave the dishes prepared from fish like the filled lambs because, on abundance of fish in this country, do of it different grades and types of foods as we heard about it long ago. Choose from it all bones and beat in mortars until it becomes as dough, then fill with onions and a saffron much, put in wooden forms in the form of lambs and geese and fry in vegetable oil on very deep, like wells, baking sheets that it was fried thoroughly through, give and cut like pieces of a fat tail. Taste its excellent: who does not know, will take for the present to a yagnyachya meat … “. Out of respect for the guest`s dignity, Pavel notes, the table on this feast was fish.
The author of diaries and the Lent tortures endured by them, people of other customs in frosty Moscow describes: “ We left church only after the eighth hour, dying of fatigue and standing on cold. We transferred to this post together with them (moskovitam) big torture, imitating them against will, especially in food, we did not find other food, except a mazara (a gruel?) similar to boiled peas and beans because in this post do not eat oil at all. For this reason we tested great, indescribable flour. We would excuse them if they in this post of a fir-tree not only fish, but also meat: the sin and a ban because at them as we told, are not found would not be it and therefore neither lentil, nor sheep peas are unknown to them; unless in houses of francs (you will find them), at the price is more expensive than some pepper. Besides (mazar) they know only salty cabbage and pickles. They have beans violet and white, but the price of pound is 3 kopeks … Besides fish, they have nothing especially cheap but because is to the poor family person if fish is forbidden him?. As often we sighed and grieved on foods of our homeland and conjured a great oath that nobody complained of a post from now on! Because God knows, our foods which are eaten with a post, do not happen even during Easter and meat eaters here: except fish, meat and kvass, these people know nothing, - undoubtedly, they truly sacred “.
Meanwhile, actually customs of the Lent at the top officials of the state were even more strict. The Moscow patriarch Nikon in general did the first two days without food. As well as the tsar who broke the fast after that only on Wednesday sweet compote. Rich monasteries in the first Lent week sent to the patriarch as blessing from monastery huge rye hleba, kegs of kvass and a barrel of sourcrout.
The entertaining remark was made by Pavel Aleppsky concerning an easter meal: “ the first food served at a table there was a black and red caviar, and different fish was served after that. Such is their charter, and they got used to it! What bad order! It seemed to us as though we still fast and did not break the fast “.
Pavel Aleppsky`s diaries - very valuable source for those who look for data on life of people of the second half of the 17th century. But this also remarkable reading for all inquisitive, for fans of literature in general. Having got acquainted at least in brief with the book, you can not respond to his this appeal any more:
“ About you reading this description made by me pray for me, the ailing slave Pavel, on a rank of the archdeacon and my sins The one Who facilitated to me (work) and opened abilities of my mind so my reason extended will forgive and I wrote all this narration, drawing up and which statement would be much not on forces! I troubled the eyes, thought and feelings, applied big efforts and worked much … All my desire in that consists during lifetime to build to itself a monument that subsequently there was somebody who would tell: “ Yes God will pardon him! “ …]