Whether the prison cell can become a scientific office?
“ My goods from time do not spoil. Time will come - my work will come out in full. “
(Morozov N. A.)
Astronomer, physicist, mathematician, chemist, historian, polyglot, poet, revolutionary-narodovolets. The lifelong prisoner of Shlisselburgsky fortress thrown by doctors and supervisors to die. He not only survived, but also made many discoveries and wrote books. Was the first reformer of historical chronology. These events would be enough for several lives. And belong to one uncommon person - to Morozov Nikolay Aleksandrovich.
The illegitimate son of the millionaire and the former serf, Nikolay was born in 1854 in the Yaroslavl region. Mother at the time of acquaintance to future father of my hero was 16 years old.
Living in perfect harmony with the young educated peasant, Nikolay`s father was considered in too time, the enviable groom and received in a manor of the matchmakers and maidens dreaming to become related with the richest landowner.
Should pay tribute, Nikolay`s father cared for children, was engaged in their education and education. Though did not find time to legalize the relations with mother of the children.
Nikolay Morozov came in 12 years to the second class of the Moscow classical gymnasium at once. The boy since the childhood differed in sensitivity to the nature and had a reputation for the personality enthusiastic, even excited.
“ The Spiritualizing of the nature reached at me in the childhood to such an extent that, running out in the morning in park, I mentally greeted each subject which caught sight to me: with the small river, with a hillock, a cloudlet, a tree, a daw, the sun, a dawn etc. and in the evenings did not forget and to say goodbye to all people around me objects. “
Very much liked to read, and everything, though gave preference to scientific literature on natural disciplines. In the father`s manor he learned that except the monarchy there is still a republic. Nikolay organized
In a gymnasium with schoolmates “ Union of scientists “. And it during a total ban of free-thinking in educational institutions!
“ I already from the fifth class began to run in the Moscow university to be engaged on holidays in the zoological and geological museums, and also ran at lecture, replacing the gymnasia form with ordinary clothes of students of that time “.
Thirst for education at it was surprising. Romantic nature flared thirst of education of peasants. Circulations in the people were more similar to game in the people.
“ If I indifferently leave the new friends to go on death, I will forever lose to myself respect and I will not be capable of anything decent " any more;.
Being got up in country clothes or in a working uniform, he was engaged in the same, than and his wards. And at the same time tried to form them. From this idea nothing acceptable turned out, and the relations with the authorities completely deteriorated. Morozov did not end a gymnasium. Having learned that their pupil under a consequence, the administration of a gymnasium urgently excluded it.
Arrests began. Morozov appeared in emigration where cherished dream to help with the organization of the narodovolchesky newspaper and at the same time to learn at the Geneva university. Met Plekhanov, K. Marx. In 1875 N. A. Morozov is arrested in attempt of return to Russia. It was condemned on “ to process of the 193rd “ then a great number of his friends died during the investigation of diseases and hunger, without having lived up to the court which did not manage to find in actions “ nihilists “ considerable crime.
Under sentence of court he was condemned by 15 months of prison, but taking into account a three-year pre-trial detention it was released in 1878
“ I am an exile from the homeland for civil liberty, for the republic too as was once an exile and Garibaldi in spite of the fact that to me twenty years passed only recently, and I under laws was considered still as a minor. “
In 1880 emigrated to Switzerland where adjusted the edition of revolutionary literature for Russia. Return home came to the end with arrest in the Peter and Paul Fortress. In fortress he was starved. Survived. Solved the swelled-up legs and a problem with a backbone by " method; wedge wedge “. Went, squatted, loaded itself with physical exercises, did not get stronger yet. Tuberculosis “ treated “ shut that did not allow itself to cough a mouth a pillow!
The court sentenced N. A. Morozov among five defendants to eternal penal servitude. Gendarmes considered N. A. Morozov “ very dangerous revolutionary figure owing to his feature of nature of its activity which is not giving the chance to convict him of the harmful " direction; (!)
In its three years, sick, but not broken was accepted by Shlisselburgsky fortress. In total Morozov carried out in an imprisonment of 28 years. The life imprisonment appointed to it safely terminated in 1905. There were to Nikolay Morozov then 51 years. And in 1907 got to prison, for verses again! Surprising feature of character of my hero - to be fond of adventures, and then we will start singing to go in for sciences in prisons.
For years of an imprisonment are written to them several scientific works on Christianity history, on astrology, on mathematics and physics, he also learned 16 languages.
“ Then (in the Peter and Paul Fortress) there were at me plots and my future books: “ Revelation in a thunder-storm and a storm “ “ Prophets “ and many of the heads which entered in I and II Toma of my lot of work “ Christ “ … On arrival to Shlisselburg (the place of the following imprisonment) used … university textbooks and courses. began to write the books which appeared then: “ Function, evident statement of the highest mathematical analysis “ and “ Periodic systems of a structure of the substance “ where I theoretically removed existence yet not known then helium … installed periodic system of hydrocarbonic radicals as a basis of organic life. In the same place also some other my books were written: “ Laws of resistance of elastic medium to the bodies moving in it “ “ Bases of the qualitative physicist - the mathematical analysis “ “ Vectorial algebra “ etc.
A, besides, for full receiving mendeleevsky system in all its ranks, except two first, me was necessary to enter also hydrogen in special primary state, and into all groups, except for theoretically entered by me neutral, two sorts of electrons had to enter. I called one of them katodiy, i.e. allocated on the cathode, and another - anodiy, allocated on the anode * … I came to a possibility of connection of two atomikul a katodiya with one atomikul an anodiya, and the neutral space substance extremely light and all getting turns out, and drew then a conclusion that, except the elements specified by Mendeleyev there have to be their isotopes. “
* Katody was called by an electron subsequently, and anodiya - a positron.
Turns out that already repeatedly the positron was opened in 1932 by the American physicist Anderson at supervision of space radiation by means of Wilson`s chamber placed in a magnetic field. Name “ positron “ Anderson thought up! N. A. Morozov pursued
After release science, became professor, the director of institute of P.F. Lesgaft. The academy of Sciences of the USSR elected it the honorary member on March 29, 1932 on offices chemical and physics - mathematical sciences. Then, after revolution, it transferred the manor in the Yaroslavl province to the state for needs of science. Unfortunately, its many works did not gain worthy recognition in scientific community as their contents was in a conflict with policy of that time and ideology now of the Soviet power. He died in 1946 at the age of 92 years.
To learn about N. A. Morozov in more detail and it is possible to read his works on this reference. chronologia. org/morozov/morozov. html]