Whose name is born by unit of force of electric current?
the Famous French mathematician and the scientist Andre - Mari Ampere (Andre - Marie Ampere) was born in Lyon on January 22, 1775. The son of the successful Lyons businessman, Ampere got a house education, mainly, independently studying books on mathematics and physics from fatherly library. In 14 years he read all twenty eight volumes French “ Encyclopedias “ learned Latin, the Greek and Italian languages for reading works of scientists in originals. At the age of thirteen years it presented the first works on mathematics to the Lyons academy.
At the age of 26 years old became Ampere professor of the Central school in the city of Bourke - An - Bres. There passed four more years, and by Ampere was invited to Paris for work at the well-known Polytechnical school at which then the best scientists of France taught. By 30 years of the life of Ampere performed extremely important scientific works in the field of mathematics and the physicists who put it in one row with the famous scientists of France. Its remarkable works on probability theory and concerning the annex of calculus of variations to mechanics belong to this period. In the same time he performed a number of original works on separate problems of the mathematical analysis.
The main physical works are devoted to electrodynamics. In 1820 formulated the rule for definition of the direction of action of magnetic current on a magnetic needle (Ampere`s rule), carried out a large number of experiments on research of interaction between electric current and a magnet, designed for this purpose a set of devices, found influence of a magnetic field of Earth on moving conductors with current. Opened interaction of electric currents and established the law of this interaction (Ampere`s law), developed the theory of magnetism (1820).
For the first time specified Ampere on close “ genetic “ interrelation between electric and magnetic processes and consistently carried out purely current idea of an origin of magnetism. Opened (1822) magnetic effect of the coil with current - the solenoid, drew a conclusion that the solenoid which is flowed round by current is an equivalent of a permanent magnet, put forward idea of strengthening of a magnetic field by the room in the solenoid of the iron core from soft iron. In 1820 suggested to use the electromagnetic phenomena for signaling. Invented the switchboard, electromagnetic telegraph (1829). Formulated the concept “ kinematics “. Researches belong also to philosophy and botany. At the end of Ampere`s life developed the classification of science of the time stated in work “ Experience of philosophy of sciences... “ (1834).
We often face a mention of Andre - Mari of Ampere, perhaps, without understanding that. Look at any electric device at your place - and you on it will find its electrotechnical characteristics, for example: “ ~ 220V 50Hz 3,2A “. It means that the device is calculated on power supply from the standard power supply network of alternating current of 220 volts with a frequency of 50 hertz, and force of the current consumed by the device makes 3,2 amperes. Unit of current of amperes (in abbreviated form “ And “) just it is also called in honor of the scientist.
Died Ampere on June 10, 1836 in Marseille.]