Rus Articles Journal

By whom it is necessary to increase Andre Ampere to receive James Uatt?

appropriate more than two hundred years names of outstanding scientists to units of measure. And we is frequent, speaking about parameters of some devices, habitually we tell Watt, Ampere, Volt, without reflecting that it is names of people. One of them, Alessandro Volta, was born in the Italian city of Komo near Milan 263 years ago on February 18, 1745. For what his name is immortalized?

Volta seriously was fond of science in 13 - summer age when according to calculations for Newton`s laws of gravitation in the sky repeatedly there was Galley`s comet. But young Volta was attracted more by fashionable then electricity. Having learned about Benjamin Franklin`s works, Volta in 1768 installs the city`s first lightning rod. In 24 years he publishes the first scientific work which was devoted to the theory of a Leiden can.

By forty years Volta becomes the recognized scientist. Its works are devoted to electricity, chemistry and physiology. He invented a number of electric devices (an electrophorus, the electrometer, the condenser, the electroscope, etc.) . In 1776 Volta found and methane investigated combustible gas and invented the gas gun in which gas methane exploded from an electric spark. In 1784 he created the sensitive electroscope with straws, invented the flat condenser, found conductivity of a flame.

In 1791 the composition of professor of anatomy Luigi Galvani on the electricity arising in biological fabrics was published in Bologna. Volta made a number of experiments and showed that the phenomenon reasons not biological, but physical - a pad of a frog only the sensitive indicator. He established that the observed phenomena are connected with existence of the closed chain consisting of two diverse metals and liquid. Carrying out numerous rather - physiological experiences, Volta observed at animals big electric excitability of nerves in comparison with muscles, and also smooth muscles of intestines and a stomach in comparison with skeletal. He found (1792 - 1795) electric irritability of organs of vision and taste in the person. These works were of great importance in the history of methods of physiological experiment.

In 1800 Volta invented so-called Volts a column - the first source of a direct current consisting from 20 or more than couples of circles from two various metals divided by the layers of fabric or paper moistened with salty water or solution of alkali. Creation voltova of a column the era of an electrostatics came to the end and the foundation of an era of electrical equipment was laid. In 1802 the Russian physicist V. V. Petrov on a basis voltova of a column opened the phenomenon of an electric arch. In 1807 the English physicist Hemfri Davy with the help voltova of a column made electrochemical decomposition of salt on components. In 1820 the Danish physicist Ersted by means of the same voltova of a column opened magnetic effect of electric current. The well-known experiments of Michael Faraday were made with the same power supply. Volts column remained the only source of current up to 1867 when Leklanshe invented the acid electric battery.

Memory of Volta was immortalized in 1881 on the International congress of electricians in Paris where one major electric units - the name " was appropriated to a unit of voltage; volt . So in the formula of electric power of W, known since school times, = A x V (power is equal to work of current on tension), all units are called by the names of specific people - James Uatt, Andre Ampere, Alessandro Volta.

Alessandro Volta in the hometown of Komo on March 5, 1827 at the age of 82 years at one o`clock with the famous Laplace who died in Paris died.]