How the church helped the Russian police to fight crime?
In comparison with prison department, divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs were forced to build relationship with the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) on qualitatively other basis as had no churches and regular priests. Its militarized character was a distinctive feature of the Russian police always. Army officers and the lower ranks which on age or a state of health became unsuitable to service in troops or were in a stock and resignation were, as a rule, transferred to service in police. If there was no transfer to other region of the country, then such ranks of police remained parishioners of the regimental or garrison temple. Gendarme divisions were originally attached to military churches, but then functions of their spiritual okormleniye even more often began to be assigned to parsons.
In 1782 it was approved “ Charter of Deanery or police officer “ consolidated the moral principles of activity of police in which formation the noticeable role was allocated for ROC. Placed in the Charter “ General rules of decency “ ordered: “ do not repair to the neighbor that you do not want to suffer; not tokmo to the neighbor do not create it is dashing, but create to him good, colic you can; in kind help each other, conduct the blind person, give a roof to the innocent, sing eager; from a way descended specify a way “. The orthodox clergy was also urged to promote education of these qualities at employees of police. At the same time the important place was taken away obryadovo - to cult maintenance of official ceremonies, celebrations.
In police divisions there was a system of annual holidays which were celebrated, as a rule, in day of honoring of the orthodox Saint elected police officers to himself in patrons. For city and district police most often holidays were established in honor of Saints Nikolay Ugodnik, Alexander Nevsky, Arkhistratiga Mikhail, the Prelate Alexy, and also icons of the Kazan Mother of God; for gendarmerie and district police guards - Georges the Victorious and Alexander Nevsky. The general professional holiday of police established in 1914 was devoted to the Prelate Alexy to the Metropolitan of Moscow.
Such holidays were spent according to similar scenarios in which the central role was allocated for orthodox clergy. As a rule, celebration began with church parade before the temple. Then in the temple in the presence of a large number of guests there took place solemn church service with the sermon. After that celebration continued in police department, barracks of a gendarme division or police guards. Historical relics also were stored in specially issued room where there was richly decorated icon of the esteemed Saint, church service was again carried out, then orders on encouragement, congratulatory telegrams became engrossed in reading and gifts were handed. It should be noted that these specially equipped rooms with icons served as a prototype of the modern molal rooms created in separate divisions of law enforcement agencies of Russia.
As well as in prison department, in divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs with active participation of orthodox clergy celebrations of anniversaries services of police ranks were held. Prayers and sermons in which merits of heroes of the anniversary were noted were their indispensable attribute.
Traditionally in police educational institutions orthodox priests taught the Scripture. At delivery by police officers an unter - officers of examination on assignments of the first cool rank (the 14th class “ Tables of ranks “) they had to show knowledge of the Catechism therefore orthodox priests joined also in examination committees. It should be noted that after revolutionary events of 1905 - 1907 in a number of the educational institutions which are especially again created the Scripture was not included in the list of obligatory disciplines any more. Its teaching began to depend on the decision of the local police management.
Despite externally broad communications of police and ROC, educational influence of clergy on ranks of police, mostly, it was limited obryadovo - cult maintenance of actions and had formal character. The church was more interested to work with the persons violating the law, but not with police ranks. So, - the St. Petersburg and Ladoga Anthony it was offered to parsons to carry out by the decision of the metropolitan Sankt on Sundays church services in police parts for the prisoners who are contained there, to supply them with religious literature and to involve in carrying out with them religious readings Christian educated parishioners.
It developed and received legislative fixing of the practician of rendering by priests of the help to police officers in performance of their professional functions, and ranks of police - law-enforcement ensuring direct religious activity.
After the edition in 1905. The decree on toleration, priests began to be attracted for an explanation to police ranks of features of various religions. It was connected with what police ranks defined - whether to allow carrying out church services and church meetings in sectarian temples and houses of worship. The main condition at the same time was that “ the dogma is known to the government and that it does not belong to number of those which are pursued by the law “. This problem was so actual for police that the text of the circular of the Ministry of Internal Affairs defining “ Rules for the device sectarians of liturgical and church meetings “ with detailed explanations during 1910 it was twice published in the " magazine; Bulletin of police “.
Police bodies actively used possibilities of church for promotion of law-abiding behavior, a sober way of life, and also for involvement of the population to fight against crime. So, in 1910, in church of the village Bokhot of the Mogilev province after the sermon of the priest 91 peasants were handed small cash bonuses for “ approximate assistance to police guards in prosecution of robbers “.
Police ranks participated in investigation of the crimes committed in the sphere of the religious relations which treated: crimes against church service, evasion from execution of rules of orthodox church, derogation from orthodox belief and a crime against rules of toleration. And on affairs, jurisdictional to spiritual court, spiritual consistories were authorized “ to charge to ranks of police production of investigative actions “. Providing an order was assigned to police officers during religious ceremonies, they were recommended to watch that “ near churches, in particular during church service, and it is equal and during religious processions there was no noise, excess and impropriety “.
Cooperating with police, ROC, though did not achieve special success, but made the feasible contribution to fight against crime and education at the population of the country of law-abiding.]